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In the pages that follow is shown the necessity for, 
and a method of arriving at, an integrated program of 
religious education. It is perhaps not out of order to 
say here that the church itself is not definitely treated 
in these discussions, purposely so, but that it has never- 
theless been impossible to refrain altogether from 
touching on the church and its ideals and program. 
The viewpoint taken throughout is that the Church 
School is the creature of the church, the organization to 
which the church has committed the duty of teaching 

People divide on the question whether religion can 
be taught and what is meant by teaching religion. Our 
own thought in all that follows construes religion as a 
way of life and Religious Education as the process by 
which we teach boys and girls, men and women, to 
live with and for each other and unto God. We do 
not hesitate, therefore, to record here unequivocally 
our conviction that religion can be taught. 

The integrated, in sharp contrast with the detached, 
Church School must not of course isolate but har- 
moniously adjust itself in all its aims, objectives, plans, 
programs, and purposes to the church that commis- 
sions it to work and grants it being. Conversely, the 
church not content simply to unload the job, can won- 
derfully aid in the work of Religious Education. The 
Sunday morning sermon in the hands of many min- 
isters fits beautifully into the Church School curricu- 
lum. For example, the Uniform Lessons are at the 
time of this writing concerned with the gospel accord- 
ing to John. On the first of these Sundays what an 


opportunity the minister has to tell something about 
the viewpoints of the four gospels, and more particu- 
larly why John wrote and why we study his interpre- 
tative message! Numerous such opportunities will oc- 
cur during the year for the minister who takes seriously 
the program of education conducted by his Church 

The discussion which follows raises many ques- 
tions which it does not essay to answer and suggests 
problems which can be settled only on the basis of 
extensive research and experimentation. For example, 
we know that the cost of our present competing and 
chaotic over-lapping organizations is excessive, but only 
research can reveal the facts that will make the remedy 
plain. Just what should be taught in the Sunday 
School, if the Week Day and Vacation Religious 
Schools operate on a community or interdenominational 
basis, is too problematic for definite agreement at this 
time. The integration of the public school curriculum, 
in contrast to its present detachment, with that of Re- 
ligious Education is even more problematic. Wide and 
prolonged investigation and experimentation are needed 
to determine more sharply the issues involved. It is 
very likely that the best bond of integration will be 
found in common attitudes and ideals and not in sub- 
ject matter regarded as a body of knowledge; but the 
ultimate conclusion may be that the best way to tie 
them together is by an incorporation of religious in- 
struction in public schools. 

Some readers will take issue, perhaps, with the use 
here made of the terms instructional and expressional. 
We deem their use justified on the ground of present 
day practice. Experts may know that method and 
subject matter cannot be separated and that every ex- 
perience is educative. Nevertheless, in common prac- 
tice the formal class session is regarded as instructional, 
and laboratory sessions, such as are scheduled in Manual 
Arts and Manual Training, Scouting, Christian En- 


deavor, recreation, and the like, as expressional. In 
view of the present state of our educational organiza- 
tion and teaching practice, therefore, the use of these 
terms appears essential at this time in a manual whose 
special aim is practical helpfulness. Experts would 
express it this way: knowledge arises out of experience 
interpreted as meaningful and functions in the form of 
controls. The chief functions, therefore, of the teacher 
— better to be considered counsellor, guide, or com- 
panion in learning — are to enrich the learner's experi- 
ences for him and assist him in their adaptation as con- 
trols. In taking practical steps to supplant ultimately 
a program divided into isolated compartments with an 
integrated one, we cannot break entirely with the 
nomenclature even to which our workers are accus- 
tomed, else confusion will ensue. 

Perhaps, also, a more extensive discussion of the 
theory supporting the integration idea should have been 
included than the one given in the introduction to 
Chapter II. Our purpose is to present a program of 
integration however, rather than the principles involved. 
The educational philosophy underlying the program 
and supporting it at each step is implicit in every para- 
graph. It is expected that the reader will in his own 
thinking make it explicit. Our space as well as our 
purpose render it impracticable to do more than sug- 
gest the theoretical basis on which our present dis- 
cussion rests. In a sense, too, a compliment is paid 
by this method to the intelligence of the reader, which 
the author throughout assumes. 

Although it will be long years before a truly in- 
tegrated, in contrast with the present program of Re- 
ligious Education divided into non-reciprocal compart- 
ments can be effected, this fact should not dissuade 
us from doing our bit in that direction. Also, as we 
advance a step in the approach to our ideal, we shall dis- 
cover that our ideal has stepped ahead too and that 
we are pursuing a flying goal. Why should that dis- 


courage us? The eternal years of God are ours, if 
we are laboring in His cause. 

Finally, an integrated, in contrast with the present 
program of Religious Education divided among detached 
agencies will pave the way for the union of all Christian 
forces. We must learn the value of union effort in our 
local churches before we can truly appreciate its need 
for the whole church. As prophets of the day when 
our Lord's prayer for the oneness of his followers shall 
be answered, let us gird ourselves for the duty immedi- 
ately at hand which challenges us to do our best in the 
interest of His Kingdom — the duty of striving with un- 
daunted zeal for an integrated program of Religious 

W. A. Harper. 








ING 100 






Chapter I 

The rise and spread of a multiplicity of organiza- 
tions, agencies, and movements in the field of Religious 
Education has been a most significant characteristic of 
the last hundred years in the development and progress 
of Protestant Christianity. This penchant for or- 
ganizations began in England when Robert Raikes in 
1780 started the modern Sunday School Movement. 
It has flourished with particular rapidity in the United 
States. Every one of these organizations has felt it 
to be its duty to make itself at home in the local 
church, and likewise every one of them professes to 
represent a felt need in the effort to Christianize the 
whole of life. The achievements that have been 
wrought in this direction by these various groups since 
the beginning of the Sunday School Movement have 
been of incalculable benefit in the development of a 
Christian social order. But certain results far from de- 
sirable have come along with this benefit, for these 
movements have grown to be an almost intolerable 
burden in the way of expense and have led likewise 
to duplication of effort, over-organization, and conse- 
quent inefficiency. 

Some of these organizations began as local church 
enterprises, for example, the Christian Endeavor Society. 
They spread, because of the excellency of their achieve- 



ments, to other churches of the same body and then 
took upon themselves an interdenominational character. 

Others began as an enterprise of a single denomination 
and then, after other denominations had adopted the 
same or similiar plans, transformed themselves into in- 
terdenominational agencies; for example, the Council 
of Church Boards of Education. 

Still others were always interdenominational; for 
example, the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in 

Another class, while essentially Christian and desir- 
ing to serve the religious life, have done so in a terri- 
torial way, without reference to denominational lines; 
for example, the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C A., and 
the Religious Education Association. 

And now we have in these latter days, in the form of 
the International Council of Religious Education which 
is equally controlled by denominational and territorial 
representatives, a general organization which is both 
interdenominational and non-denominational. 


It will be well to tabulate the most important of 
these various agencies under three heads: Interdenomi- 
national, Non-denominational, and Denominational. 

A. The Interdenominational Agencies 

The Council of Church Boards of Education 
The Association of American Colleges 
The Federal Council Commission on Chris- 
tian Education 
The International Sunday School Council 

of Religious Education 
The Foreign Missions Council 
The Home Missions Council 
The Missionary Education Movement 
The United Society of Christian Endeavor 


The Council of Women for Home Missions 

The Central Committee on the United Study 
of Foreign Missions 

The Interdenominational Young People's 

The Interdenominational Student Confer- 

Baraca and Philathea Movement 
National Federation of American Students 
Federated Student Committee 
Interdenominational Student Conference 

B. Non-Denominational Agencies 

The Y. M. C. A. 
TheY.W. C. A. 

The Religious Education Association 

The World's Sunday School Association 

The American Sunday School Union 

The Boy and Girl Scouts 

The Campfire Girls , 

The Student Volunteer Movement 

The Committee on Missionary Preparation 

The American Bible Society 

The Conference of Theological Seminaries 

The Association of Biblical Instructors in 

Colleges and Universities 
The Conference of Church Workers in Uni- 

Various Professional Advisory Groups 

Various Standardizing Agencies 

Various Research Groups 

Student World Movement 

Student Fellowship for Christian Life Service 

C. Denominational Agencies 

The Sunday School Board 
The Board of Education 
The Young People's Board 
The Home Mission Board 
The Foreign Mission Board 


The Publishing Board 

The Stewardship Board 

The Board of Evangelism 

The Board of Social Service 

Boards for Denominational Benevolences, 
such as the care of aged ministers, for chil- 
dren, for homes for the aged, for hospitals, 

The Committee on Week Day Religious Edu- 

The Committee on Daily Vacation Bible 

Denominational Student Conferences 
Young People's Congresses 


A mere glance at these lists of agencies will convince 
anyone that there is too much organization. All of 
these agencies may justify their existence in a sense by 
the contribution which they make to a program of Re- 
ligious Education, which is designed to express itself in 
various appropriate ways of conduct, among which a 
benevolence program certainly ought to be included. 
No church could ever be satisfied with mere effort at 
instruction. There must also go with it modes of 
expression. It is a sound principle of pedagogy that 
information, to have influence over character, must is- 
sue in some appropriate form of conduct. 

Now some of these agencies put the emphasis on 
instruction, others on expression, and still others on 
research. These are the three great desiderata of an ad- 
vancing church — it is not necessary to keep instruction 
and expression separated in teaching procedure — and 
increasingly in practice they must be made to dovetail 
and integrate into a single unified process. In all teach- 
ing, whether by the use of instruction technically so- 
called or in the mode of expression, the nature of the 
learner must be kept under tension and in an attitude 


of mind and heart ready to take the initiative. There 
is need also for experimental work on new projects. 
No justifiable ground exists for the segregation and 
complete separation of these four desirable functions 
and necessary modes of learning. 

To point out only a few sample instances of the 
most glaring evidences of over-organization, let us take 
the matter of missions. There are nine definitely or- 
ganized agencies for missionary work. Five of them 
are interdenominational, two are non-denominational, 
and two are denominational. 

So far as a program of education is concerned, there 
is no ground for divorce and isolation on the part of 
the agencies that are to inform the children, youth, and 
adults of the church in regard to missionary aims and 
objectives. In the second place, there is no need to 
separate the work of the men and the work of the 
women for missions. Missionary education is not a 
matter of sex. Aside from the educational functions, 
all the functions that are now exercised by these various 
groups, are administrative and for the most part are 
matters of bookkeeping. The need is thoroughgoing for 
the elimination of many of these organizations with a 
high overhead working in the field of missions. Their 
educational functions should be taken over by the gen- 
eral denominational board having to do with educa- 
tion, and their administrative functions should, so far 
as the denominations are concerned, be assigned to the 
Department of Finance. 

We have all rejoiced over the formation of the Inter- 
national Council of Religious Education. Before the 
merger was effected we had the International Sunday 
School Association, the Sunday School Council, and 
the International Lesson Committee. The Interna- 
tional Sunday School Association and the Sunday 
School Council have merged and the International Les- 
son Committee is in process of merging its functions in 
the same organization. This merger has preserved the 


strong points of each group, eliminating their weak- 
nesses and giving us a practical illustration of the 
integration of organizations which must continue till 
the general agencies of Religious Education are com- 
pletely unified. In time, all the interdenominational 
boards and organizations working in the general field of 
Religious Education should merge themselves in the 
International Council. When that has been achieved, 
the final step will remain to be taken, which is for the 
International Council itself to become the Department 
of Christian Education of the Federal Council of 
Churches of Christ in America. 

There is a widespread demand that these unnecessary- 
agencies shall remedy this evil of over-organization for 
which they are responsible by merging themselves into 
larger groups, and there are encouraging evidences that 
this course is to be pursued. For example, there met 
at Garden City, Long Island, in May, 1921, repre- 
sentatives of various educational agencies for the pur- 
pose of discussing the situation now facing the church, 
and it was unanimously agreed that the time had come 
to undertake the elimination of the evils of over-or- 
ganization from which they are all suffering. Two 
years later, at Forest Hills, Long Island, another meet- 
ing was held of various educational agencies, and at 
this time a step was taken looking to the establishment 
of a simple, informal council of correlation. Since the 
Forest Hills meeting, the agencies represented in that 
gathering have been holding almost weekly conferences 
in New York City for the closer coordination and cor- 
relation of their work. This is good enough as far as it 
goes, but it does not go far enough. Something more 
than correlation is needed to remove the over-organiza- 
tion that now obsesses and hampers Religious Educa- 
tion in working out a consistent program. The or- 
ganizations must be cut down in number. 

The findings of this Forest Hills Conference, how- 
ever, are fairly indicative of the spirit of the age and 


are worthy of careful consideration. They are as fol- 

1 . The child in the local group is the basis 
of correlation of program material. 

2. Local initiative and experimentation in 
program making are to be encouraged and 
stimulated, even in the less resourceful com- 
munities, rather than the adoption of pre- 
scribed programs of activities. 

3. In order to make available a variety of 
source material in a form usable by local com- 
munities, and in order to give them stimulus, 
help, and guidance, typical programs should 
be developed nationally. Such programs 
should grow out of local experimentation, 
and every effort should be made to prevent 
them from becoming fixed and static. 

4. National organizations have important 
functions to perform in encouraging experi- 
mentation, comparing the results from various 
communities, serving as a clearing house for 
successful methods, developing and training 
leaders, and especially in sensing problems or 
plans that might be typical of any large 
grouping in American or world society, so 
that there may be the outlook of the larger 
groupings as well as of the local community. 

5. In view of the larger value which comes 
from the development of plans locally, and 
in view of the fact that no one type of pro- 
gram can meet the needs of every community 
or group, programs should be presented by 
the national organizations in such form as 
will make possible individual selection and 
adaptation and stimulate initiative and re- 
sourcefulness. Community groups should 
work out plans locally, using national pro- 
grams as source material in meeting different 
kinds of situations. 

6. As an immediate step in facilitating this 
procedure, the common as well as the distinc- 


tive material of the different programs now 
existing should be codified and cross-refer- 
enced so as to make it more available for use 
in the development of self-directed activities. 

7. We note with appreciation the fact that 
the Committee on International Curriculum 
of the International Lesson Committee plans 
to have integrally related to its work on a 
Church School Curriculum all the elements 
involved in the entire program of religious 

8. We recommend that each of the general 
agencies concerned in religious education be 
asked to name two representatives to a Coun- 
cil on Correlation, which would serve as a 
clearing house of problems and plans of 
mutual concern. We recommend that this 
Council be convened at an early date by the 
Committee which called this Conference. 

While this Council will form its own or- 
ganization and determine its own functions, 
we recommend 

(a) That it give attention to the codifying 
and cross-referencing of present program 

(b) That it consider the possibility of 
further cooperation on the part of all agen- 
cies concerned in the preparation of program 


It goes without saying that the over-organization 
to which we have called attention must inevitably re- 
sult in duplication of effort. If there were no dupli- 
cation of effort, it could be truly said that there was 
no over-organization. As an illustration we may take 
the Christian Endeavor Society. In theory, it is dif- 
ferentiated from the Sunday School, and called the ex- 
pressional agency in contrast with the Sunday School 
which is said to be the teaching agency of the local 


church. But when it comes to actual working prac- 
tice, the Christian Endeavor Society and the organized 
Sunday School classes have the same committees and 
they both offer instruction in missions, stewardship, 
evangelism, social service, and kindred Christian themes. 
The Sunday School, on the one hand, engages in the ex- 
pressional work for which the Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety was designed, and the Christian Endeavor Society 
has entered the field of teaching, which in theory is 
the definite assignment of the Sunday School. In- 
asmuch as instruction and expression should be 
integrated or united in marriage and not lead single 
lives, here is a case that calls for special attention. 

All the duplication of effort is not confined to the 
work done twice over by the Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety and other young people's organizations and the 
Sunday School. Practically every agency in the entire 
church field carries on a work of education or of propa- 
ganda. These programs conflict and overlap with con- 
sequent confusion and dissipation of effort. 

As has already been said above, there is a general 
feeling gaining ground that this duplication of effort 
and conflict of program must be eliminated. There 
is no other problem facing the statesmanship of the 
Protestant Church today that so clamors for solution. 


It is an inevitable consequence of over-organization 
and duplication of effort that there should be a heavy 
overhead expense all out of proportion to the results 
obtained. An unanswerable indictment can be lodged 
against the leadership of the work done in Religious 
Education on this point. The waste of money used 
in the maintenance of competing organizations in view 
of the crying need of the world and the rights of little 
children is inexcusable folly. It is worse than folly; 
it is a tragedy. Every one of these competing organiza- 


tions must look to the organized Christian forces of 
the nation for its support, and money which is wasted 
in overhead cannot also be used in carrying on a con- 
sistent program of religious education. A problem for 
a Bureau of Research lies here. The Religious Educa- 
tion Association, the Russell Sage Foundation, the In- 
stitute of Social and Religious Research, the Depart- 
ment of Research and Service of the International Coun- 
cil, or some other research organization should insti- 
tute a thoroughgoing inquiry into the overhead cost of 
all organizations connected with the church, whether 
interdenominational, non-denominational, or denomi- 
national in character, and make recommendations for 
the elimination of this waste. No greater service can 
be rendered the cause of Religious Education at this 
time than the interpretation of the collection of facts 
that such a survey would yield. It should also be said 
in this connection that one of the chief hindrances in 
the way of removing the evils of over-organization, 
duplication of effort, and the consequent wasteful ex- 
pense to the Christian public will be opposition for 
which the officers and boards in charge of these organi- 
zations and the vested interests involved will be found 


The crowning indictment or the present situation in 
the field of Religious Education is found in its ineffi- 
ciency, which is generally admitted and from which 
there is a universal demand for relief. The Indiana Sur- 
vey of Religious Education conducted by Dean Walter 
S. Athearn and others, in one of our most progressive 
commonwealths, has exposed conditions that would be 
crushing, were they not at the same time remediable. 
The sad plight of the Christian leadership of the State 
of Indiana is duplicated in practically every state in 
the Union, and in some of the states the conditions are 


more discouraging than in Indiana. When we find 
that 87.7% of all the Sunday School teachers of In- 
diana fall below the lowest standards for rural public 
school teachers which are accepted by the state, we begin 
to sense what a charge is laid at the door of Christian 
statesmanship. We must also recognize that there is 
practically no supervision, in the proper meaning of 
that word, in the field of Religious Education. The 
effort that we have been expending in keeping com- 
peting organizations with their conflicting programs 
alive and the consequent useless dissipation of our re- 
sources have inflicted upon us the deplorable conditions 
which have been disclosed in one of our most enlight- 
ened and forward-looking states. We must now re- 
adjust ourselves to the task of leadership training for 
the work of Religious Education in local churches. 
That readjustment must include provision for the work 
of supervision in these churches, as well as for those 
other types of leadership which are now included in the 
general work of Religious Education, such as editing, 
finance, research, higher education, general supervision, 


In the last analysis, all the main burden for the pro- 
gram of Religious Education must rest upon the local 
church as a group, or upon its individual members. 
The Inter-Church World Movement proceeded upon 
the assumption that there was a Christian community 
not connected with the churches which would support 
a general program of Christian effort, but this beautiful 
dream proved to be the undoing of that wonderful 
enterprise for the advance of the Kingdom. So it can be 
safely said that all the overhead expense of maintaining 
all the general organizations of every character, to- 
gether with the expense of local programs, must be 
borne by the local churches as groups, or by their in- 
dividual members. 


A veritable pyramid of obligations rests upon these 
local churches by reason of the situation we have been 
describing. It is in the local church that the ill effects 
of over-organizations, duplication of effort, wasteful 
overhead expense, and inadequancy of leadership pile 
up in a perfect riot of confusion and inefficiency. The 
interdenominational and the non-denominational agen- 
cies send down to the local church their programs of 
education and their calls for financial support. The de- 
nominational boards do likewise. And in addition 
there are the state, county, city, and township organiza- 
tions, working in connection with many of the general 
organizations listed above, all of which must be cared 
for and financed by Christian people. Then the local 
organization has its own budget of current expenses 
to meet. It is almost impossible for a local church to 
keep the figures down to a workable budget in the 
face of the calls that regularly come to it for benevolence 
and support from so many varied directions. If the 
local church undertook to incorporate into its budget 
program all the suggestions as they are handed down to 
it for local application from the various higher up or- 
ganizations, the officers of administration would be- 
come mad men and women. Their only hope of 
achieving anything in the way of a program of Re- 
ligious Education that they can finance is to make one 
for themselves. Their inexperience in this direction 
and their lack of grasp and appreciation of aims and 
objectives mean continued inefficiency of a very pro- 
nounced character in the local church. 

It is the local church, too, that bears the brunt of 
the losses sustained in consequence of our present in- 
coherent and inarticulate competing agencies of Re- 
ligious Education. Most of these local leaders are dis- 
couraged and dismayed by the situation that confronts 
them, a situation further complicated by the recent 
appearance in the local church of the demand for week 
day religious instruction and the daily vacation Bible 


school. They do not have at their disposal methods 
of redress. Except in the rarest instances they are 
not able to diagnose the situation correctly, and in these 
cases effective remedies are almost always lacking. The 
Christian statesmanship of the churches must remedy 
the sad plight of these individual units of the Kingdom 
which are undertaking, against fearful odds, to perform 
the service expected of them in the realm of Religious 
Education. The work of integration rests with this 
general leadership; it must begin at the top. 


Athearn: Religious Education and American Democracy. 
Ch. IV. 

Brown: A History of Religious Education in Recent Times. 

Chs. VII, VIII, IX. 
Winchester: Religious Education and Democracy. Ch. VIII. 
Harper: The Church in the Present Crisis. Ch. IV. 
Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook: The 

Teaching Work of the Church. Chs. VII, VIII. 
Cope: Organizing the Church School. Chs. I, II. 
Dewey: Experience and Nature. 
Douglass: How Shall Country Youth Be Served? 

Chapter II 


Instruction should pass over into the expressional 
and expression react on the instructional. This is 
fundamental. It must never be forgotten. It means 
that the sharp distinction between instruction and 
expression must be abandoned. Knowledge necessarily 
arises out of experience as meaning. It returns to 
experience after enrichment through the teaching process 
as purposive control. 

There is a growing conviction which is well-nigh 
universal now among those who have given serious 
thought to the work of Religious Education, namely, 
that unity is necessary in a statesmanlike approach to 
the teaching problem of the church. The psychologists 
have made a definite contribution to the clarifying of 
our thinking in such matters, in demonstrating beyond 
possibility of doubt that the human mind operates as 
a unit in every experience. Every mental act involves 
intellect, emotion, and will. The consequences of this 
discovery for Religious Education and for the re- 
organization and readjustment of its agencies of teach- 
ing are radical and revolutionary, but at the same time, 
promising and hopeful. The whole human being is 
present in every educational experience. Beginning 
with the fundamental concept that the educational proc- 
ess must be unified, the consistent thinker in the field 
of Religious Education can proceed with confidence in 
the effort to effect such unity. This will necessarily 
mean the unification of all the agencies that minister to 
the spiritual nurture of the pupil as well as the unifica- 



tion of all the elements of the curriculum based on 

While this problem has been attacked from many- 
angles, the proposed solutions naturally gather them- 
selves under three general heads: cooperation, correla- 
tion, and integration. It will be well to consider these 
in order. 


Cooperation has to a certain extent all along char- 
acterized the denominational boards of the churches in 
their relationships to one another. At one time it was 
not felt necessary for the denominations to have head- 
quarters where the general officers could from time to 
time interview each other, discuss one other's plans, and 
in other ways cobperate for the genera! good. At times, 
even after there had come to be general headquarters, 
it was not considered especially necessary for the boards 
to hold their annual or other stated sessions at the 
same time. Gradually, however, the disposition has 
become practically general for these boards to assemble 
at the same time, and in some of the denominations 
these boards, with a few additional general members, 
have been constituted a General Board acting for the 
denomination and given administrative and, within 
certain well denned limits, also legislative powers for 
the ad interim period between the sessions of their 
national assemblies or conventions. There has grown 
up through sheer necessity the habit on the part of 
these denominational boards of consulting each other, 
or at least of sharing information with each other, in 
regard to their plans, aims, and objectives. This has 
also led to sincere efforts to cooperate in the realization 
of these several programs. 

We find this same disposition in the local church, 
in which the pastor, the superintendent of the Sunday 
School, the president of the Christian Endeavor or other 


young people's society, and the heads of the various 
missionary societies get together and inform each other 
as to their plans, programs, and intended methods of 
procedure. Manifestly, this is far better than for each 
organization to go its own way independent of all the 
others. This method at least prevents a second group 
from wishing to use the church auditorium or social 
room at the time scheduled by some other organization 
for one of its gatherings. 

For most denominational boards engaged in the 
work of Religious Education, as also for the vast 
majority of local churches, such cooperation marks the 
limit so far achieved or aimed at in the effort at unifica- 


Correlation of agencies of education is a relatively 
recent attempt to unify the different forces operating 
in this field. Correlation is a far more advanced step 
in the progress of Religious Education than coopera- 
tion; it points the way, indeed, to a complete unity of 
forces later to be achieved. According to this plan, all 
the boards of the church in charge of educational aims 
elect or appoint some representative to meet with 
representatives of the other boards of the church and 
discuss their plans and objectives, with a sincere desire 
to eliminate all duplication of effort and to present to 
their combined constituencies a single general appeal 
for support and maintenance and a coordinated cur- 
riculum of teaching and propaganda. 

Correlation has led to what we may call a Protestant 
Church Year, something very different from the Church 
Year as understood in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, 
and Protestant Episcopal Churches, which gathers 
around the outstanding events in the life of Christ and 
the history of the church. The Protestant Church 
Year is a correlated program for the systematic educa- 


tion of the constituency as a whole in the aims and 
objectives of the denomination. In this proposed 
Church Year it is the aim of the denominational 
interests to give due emphasis to the whole work of the 
whole church so that there will be no conflict of program 
and no lost motion through the duplication of effort. I 
have before me the Church Year as laid out by one of 
the denominations which distributes it as follows: 
January, Interdenominational Cooperation; February- 
March, Foreign Missions; April, Evangelism and Life 
Work; May- June, Home Missions; July- August-Sep- 
tember-October, Christian Education; and November- 
December, Stewardship and Devotion. During these 
several periods in the Church Year the various boards 
of the church send out their appeals for financial sup- 
port and their literature of propaganda and informa- 
tion. Special emphasis is laid upon the segment of the 
work for which they are responsible, the circularizing 
done covers all the organizations of the local church 
as well as the entire ministry of the church body. 
Ministers are asked to preach upon certain themes and, 
at times, the local church organizations are urged to 
present pageants prepared for them, or other programs 
that will give due publicity to the work in their care, 
on which occasions oftentimes free will offerings for 
this particular cause are received. 

In local churches, correlation usually takes the form 
of permitting each organization at work in the church 
to choose one or more representatives to meet in a 
delegated body or board to settle conflicts and make 
plans for the coordination of effort. Each organiza- 
tion in such a church maintains its sovereignty or 
autonomy, so to speak, with its special set of officers 
and its own special group of members and, aside from 
a sincere effort to prevent the evils of over-lapping 
through mutual discussion and plans, continues as 

Both in the denomination and in the local church, 


over-organization still continues to exist, and the waste- 
ful expense that goes with maintaining too many- 
organizations together with the excessive dissipation of 
energy required to keep all the organizations alive and 
working. Correlation, however, is a considerable 
advance over cooperation and is the intelligent second 
step to be taken in the effort to remedy the evils that 
we suffer because our religious educational agencies are 
so often working at cross purposes. 


Integration is the most recent effort on the part of 
workers in the field of Religious Education to sys- 
tematize and unify all the forces and agencies of the 
Kingdom that are engaged in the foundational work 
of Religious Education. Chief among the experiments 
in this direction have been the movements toward 
comprehensiveness and unity of administration now 
going on in the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
Disciples of Christ, Congregational, and Christian 

Dr. W. S. Bovard, General Secretary for the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, clearly expresses the point of 
view generally accepted by them when he says: 

In our initial organization we must merge 
our special interests in an intelligent concern 
for the whole range of educational activities 
committed to our supervision. The merger 
must first be a reality in our own group be- 
fore we can expect it to obtain throughout the 
church. Nothing could be more unfortunate 
than to organize our work in such a way as 
to give the impression that we are an assem- 
bly of blocs, rather than a body of adminis- 
trators seeing our problem whole and seeing 
it steadily. 

Our concern is primarily for the unfolding 


life of childhood and youth. The human 
factor must be determining. We are not 
called to save organizations or methods, but 
to adapt them and administer them on be- 
half of the persons involved. The inexorable 
law of the unity and social solidarity of the 
human factor argues strongly for the wisdom 
of the merger of our educational agencies. 
The indivisible unity of each person points to 
the wisdom of an educational process that in- 
cludes the physical, mental, social and spirit- 
ual phases of the unitary life. A school of 
any sort must include in its service to its 
pupils consideration of the total life. The 
principle of continuity applies to the whole 
horizontal range of life from early childhood 
to late adulthood. There are really no parti- 
tions separating radically childhood from 
youth or youth from adulthood. Childhood 
passes into youth without losing its identity. 
The education of childhood determines the 
kind of youth with which the schools and 
colleges will deal. The more we insist upon 
testing our whole educational system by the 
needs and possibilities of the life we are to 
serve, the more we shall see the wisdom of 
unifying our educational agencies which be- 
gin with the child and follow through youth 
to maturity. There is in the nature of the 
life we seek to educate an answerable reason 
for the wholeness of our educational program 
rather than a series of partial and unrelated 

Dr. Wm. C. Covert, General Secretary for the 
Presbyterian Board of Christian Education, writing in 
the Westminster Teacher for November, 1925, speaks 
most approvingly of the conclusion of the first year's 
work of his board. He says: 

The Board is a combination of all the edu- 
cational agencies that have grown up within 


the Presbyterian Church. These agencies 
have been brought together for the purpose of 
securing larger educational efficiency through 
unification and coordination of all those 
units working toward the same end in the 
educational life of the church. 

The work of this board is distributed among three 
divisions, in which all the activities of Religious Educa- 
tion from the home to the colleges, seminaries, and 
training schools are set. 

So far as the records show, and in particular the 
special study conducted by Dr. Robert L. Kelly on 
"Correlation in the Field of Education/' the first 
church to unify all these agencies and forces of educa- 
tion into a single board of Christian Education was 
the Christian Church. The constitutional amendment 
making provision for this unification was adopted at 
the session of the General Convention of that church, 
which met October 17-24, 1922. The constitutional 
amendment creating this board reads as follows: 

It (The Board of Christian Education) 
shall have charge of all the convention inter- 
ests connected with Christian Education, and 
shall survey, outline, promote, and direct a 
full program of Christian Education and 
training for Christian life and service reaching 
from our homes through our churches, com- 
munities, schools, and institutions of higher 
learning, and shall fraternally cooperate with 
similiar departments in other denominations 
and with organizations having similar ob- 

The Board of Christian Education elected by this 
church met in November of that year and issued a 
twenty-four page pamphlet of Plans and Suggestions, 
in accordance with which it intended to begin its work. 
We quote from the introductory word of that pamphlet 
as follows: 


We cannot hope to achieve our ideal over- 
night nor even in a brief quadrennium. It 
will require at least twenty years to develop 
a single congregation to the ideal standard, 
while the larger work will require a much 
longer time. We must grow by experience 
out of the present competing and chaotic 
condition of the Church's educational situa- 
tion into a real system of Christian educa- 
tional statesmanship, and our sacred duty is 
to conserve every good we now possess, to 
eliminate duplication of effort, to consoli- 
date every interest and so to integrate our 
homes, our Sunday Schools, our Christian 
Endeavor work, our Colleges, our week-day 
religious schools, our recreational, social, and 
benevolent organizations and institutions 
that a unified impact may be made on the re- 
ligious problems of our time and a coherent 
view of the religious life presented our youth. 
We shall need to modify these plans from 
time to time. We are entering new territory 
and cannot see all the way. We must ever, 
too, keep in mind in the foreground of all our 
planning — that "the child in the midst" is 
the object of all our efforts at systematizing, 
corrrelating, and integrating. Not formal 
instruction alone, but also the development 
of Christian character, is in line with our ulti- 
mate purpose. The little ones whom Jesus 
declared to be of His Kingdom we shall 
through our best endeavor strive ever to bring 
to Him and to hold for His Kingdom. 

Integration makes it necessary that all the power to 
lay out a program of Religious Education should reside 
in a single board. Those boards in all the churches 
which historically have exercised educational functions 
primarily should all be merged into a single body. But 
there are also other boards of the church which, in 
addition to their administrative and benevolent func- 


tions, have felt the need of using educational methods 
to effect their purposes. These boards should continue 
their administrative and benevolent work, but their 
educational functions should be transferred to the 
General Educational Board in working out an integrated 
program. The advice should be given in this connec- 
tion that the number of these boards should be radically 
reduced. It is very likely that a business expert called 
in to institute a well-devised system for the conduct 
of the general business of a denomination would find 
it feasible to reduce the number of general boards of 
any church body to three. One of these three would 
be a General Educational Board, and the other two 
would be a Board of Missions and a Board of Publica- 
tion. Under the care of the Board of Missions would 
be included all the business now transacted by the 
separate boards of Home and Foreign Missions and the 
various women's boards for missions. It would handle 
the work of relief and sustentation for the aged, for 
the orphans, for hospitals, and other such benevolent 
and philanthropic activities, as well as the work of 
evangelism in the sense of recruiting and promotion 
rather than as an educational process. There would 
be also a Department of Finance, which, however, 
would be the servant of the three boards, keeping the 
books for them and holding them in the spending of 
their funds to the budgets adopted by the boards and 
the income received under such budgets. 

These proposed boards, and the same is true of the 
present boards of the church until the time of re- 
organization has come, should confer whole-heartedly 
with the General Educational Board and lay their sug- 
gestions before it, but final decision in regard to all 
matters of education and methods, including the mak- 
ing of the curriculum, should rest with the General 
Educational Board. 

Integration will scratch off from the present list of 
denominational boards the names of many separate 


general agencies like those for Sunday Schools, for 
Christian Endeavor, or other young people's societies, 
for colleges, seminaries, and universities, for university 
visitation, and other similar organizations, and mean 
their fusion into a single General Educational Board. 
It also signifies the passing of control, as at present, 
over their educational programs from all other boards 
into the hands of a General Educational Board. 

In the local church, integration will mean radical 
changes in regard to parish organizations and their 
functions. It will provide for a Director of Religious 
Education who shall be in charge of the educational 
work of the local church and coordinate in authority 
with the pastor. In the vast majority of cases for 
a long time yet the pastor will necessarily have to fill 
this office too, but where a division of labor is possible 
between the educational and pastoral functions in the 
local church, the persons who fill these two positions 
should be recognized as coordinate in authority and 
standing in the church. 

Integration will make provision for an educational 
committee in the local church charged with the duty 
of gearing together all the work of education done by 
it, no matter whether this educational work be a task 
which it has agreed to perform for the community, a 
general denominational board, an interdenominational 
or a nondenominational agency. This committee 
should be empowered to elect the Director of Religious 
Education. Its members should be elected, of course, 
by the church, and their terms of office arranged so as 
to give a continuance of policy; that is to say, the 
respective terms of office of the majority of them should 
not all expire in the same year. 

Integration will also mean a complete reorganization 
of the educational work of the local church that will 
take in its curriculum, expressional activities, finances, 
and general procedure. The readjustments that this 
will involve are of such importance, however, that they 


must be treated separately. We must be content at 
this point to call attention to the necessity for a radical 
and thoroughgoing reorganization. 

There is no doubt that the integration we have 
described holds the key as a general policy to the 
future development of a consistent program of Reli- 
gious Education, one with hope and promise of success- 
ful achievement in it. It is equally certain that the 
boards of the denominations already at work in the 
field and the organizations operating in the local 
churches may be depended upon to oppose such a pro- 
gram. Even after the general church body with 
authority to do so, shall have voted for such a pro- 
gram of unification and integration and effected the 
mergers which it entails of its primarily educational 
agencies, those remaining boards with collateral educa- 
tional functions will resist the inclusion of their educa- 
tional prerogatives under the jurisdiction of the 
denominational General Educational Board. Opposi- 
tion from these sources is to be expected at first because 
of the general resistance to anything different which 
always characterizes the human race and also because of 
a similar general unwillingness to do the intellectual 
hard labor required to think through to its ultimate 
conclusion the issues involved in Religious Education. 
Nevertheless, once we have put our hands to the plow, 
there is no looking back. Forward is the only direction 
for us to take in proposals fraught with such promising 
consequences for the work of the Kingdom of God. 
However, it must be freely admitted that in translating 
plan into practice cooperation is the blade, correlation 
the ear and integration the full corn in the ear, and that 
the ultimate attainment of the goal of a unified and 
integrated program of Religious Education, effective 
in the general denominational relationships and in the 
local churches, lies many years ahead. It is our present 
business to proclaim the ideal and to work consistently 
toward it, fully recognizing that Paul may plant and 


Apollos may water, but that God alone can give the 
increase in cooperation, in correlation, and in unifica- 
tion which is absolutely necessary to a fulfillment of 
our hopes. 


What will become eventually of the interdenomina- 
tional and non-denominational agencies of Christian 
Education? Will there be any further need for them? 
Unequivocally, yes. However, it should be said in 
qualification that these agencies will devote themselves 
to the special work of experimentation, research, the 
erection of standards, and the education of the Christian 
public in principles and ideals. They will have to be 
content, and ought not to find it difficult, to withdraw 
from the execution of their programs in local churches. 
Their proposals should be submitted to the General 
Educational Board of the denomination as source 
material, which should esteem it to be one of their 
special obligations to integrate proposals of this kind 
coming to them from interdenominational and non- 
denominational agencies as far as possible with their 
own. This will necessarily mean the disappearance in 
the process of some of these organizations either 
through mergers with organizations which have sim- 
ilar aims and objectives, or with other interdenomina- 
tional or non-denominational organizations, or by 
absorption in denominations themselves. 

The process of elimination has already used both 
these methods. The various denominations, for 
example, have set up their own young people's societies 
in competition with the Christian Endeavor Society. 
The Christian Endeavor Society, on the other hand, 
has welcomed to its board of control or trusteeship 
accredited representatives from all the denominations. 
What we need here is a clear recognition on the part 


of the United Society of Christian Endeavor that the 
responsibility for integrating its Christian Endeavor 
program with the balance of the educational program 
of a denomination rests with the denominations them- 
selves and not with the United Society. It is worthy 
of note here that the Evanston Interdenominational 
Student Conference has gone on record as determined to 
unite all the organizations definitely engaged in young 
people's work. 

The International Council of Religious Education 
represents the fusion of interdenominational and non- 
denominational agencies into a single organization, 
jointly controlled by territorial and denominational 
groups of representatives. Apparently, there are other 
organizations at work in the general field of Religious 
Education which should enter this merger. The news 
gave great satisfaction to those who have the good of 
the cause of Religious Education at heart that the Inter- 
national Association of Daily Vacation Bible Schools 
had become a department of this International Council 
of Religious Education, with a secretary as an official 
in the same. But it would give them deep concern 
were the movement for week day religious education 
to undertake to perpetuate itself in a separate organiza- 
tion. It should be incorporated too in the International 
Council of Religious Education. The Boy Scouts, 
the Girl Scouts, and the Campfire Girls might certainly 
be merged with profit with the International Council 
of Religious Education. Although the Boy Scout 
movement insists that it is not an organization, its 
more recent policy of employing district and council 
executives and its present insistence on certifying all 
local scout masters and their assistants and requiring 
annual registration of all scouts, looks very much as 
if it were an organization of no mean proportions. 
More than one other organization, interdenominational 
and non-denominational, similar in character should 


eventually amalgamate with the International Council 
of Religious Education. 

Reference has already been made to the Garden City 
and Forest Hills Conferences of the various educational 
agencies. These meetings are hopeful signs of a 
promising future but they are mere beginnings. The 
primary responsibility for the work of integration at 
present rests on the denominations. They must 
first merge their own boards into a working unity 
more closely resembling that of hand and foot belonging 
to the same body and then take steps to encourage the 
Council of Church Boards of Education, the Christian 
Endeavor Movement, the Missionary Education Move- 
ment, the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and other 
organizations to enter the International Council of 
Religious Education on similar terms. Not only should 
overtures be extended to these organizations to enter 
the International Council of Religious Education when 
the time comes, but nothing is more certain than that 
eventually they will be accepted. Later the Inter- 
national Council itself should become, as we have said, 
the Department of Christian Education of the Federal 
Council. As soon as the integration of their own 
educational agencies and forces is far enough along, the 
denominational boards must then notify and inform 
the interdenominational and non-denominational or- 
ganizations that they are ready to begin negotiations, 
looking to the integration of their programs with their 
own. Inasmuch as these interdenominational and non- 
denominational agencies must have the backing, also, 
of the Christian community, the respective church 
bodies that have achieved a unified control will find 
themselves confronted with another duty, the duty of 
bringing about the merger of these other agencies into 
a working unity similar, also, to hand and foot belong- 
ing to the same body for the more ready and helpful 
preparation of mutually integrated programs. Two 
methods will be open to them of effecting the necessary 


readjustments: the one positive, the use of moral 
suasion in conference with the leaders in these organiza- 
tions, and the other negative, a refusal to integrate the 
program of a recalcitrant organization with their own 
or to allow them access for financial support to their 
local churches should they fail to surrender to the 
behests of such moral suasion. To be sure, these inter- 
denominational organizations have thus far secured 
their funds from individual Christian philanthropists, 
a constituency that will continue for at least a genera- 
tion to support them through personal contributions. 
It is hardly to be expected, even so, that these group 
leaders will be so determined upon a free lance policy 
in the separate perpetuation of their work that they 
will consider it wise to persist in their effort to finance 
themselves through such personal philanthropy, in the 
face of the open opposition thereto on the part of a 
well-knit unified denominational body. 

Be this as it may, however, its denominational lead- 
ers in Religious Education owe a twofold duty to their 
local churches. First, they are under obligation to 
devise and set before them an integrated program of 
Religious Education. And their second obligation is 
to protect these local churches from all non-denomina- 
tional and interdenominational interference with the 
orderly functioning of this program after its adoption 
in the local churches. 

Finally let it be said that there will be need, of the 
services of both non-denominational and interdenomina- 
tional agencies in the field of Religious Education, but 
the program of their operations must bear the counter- 
sign of the denominations concerned, working together 
cooperatively through their General Educational Boards. 
It now appears likely that their chief work will be 
found in the four realms set forth in outline above. 
They will certainly not be permitted much longer, and 
ought not to be permitted, to carry on nation-wide 


free lance programs of promotion and independent 


Athearn: A National System of Education. 
Stout: The Organization and Administration of Religion. 
Ch. IV. 

Coe: Education in Religion and Morals. Part I. 
Betts: The New Program of Religious Education. Chs. 

Squires: A Parish Program of Religious Education. Chs. 
Ill, IV, V. 

Brown: The Church in America. Ch. XL and passim. 

Chapter III 


We have at present far too many organizations func- 
tioning independently in the field of Religious Educa- 
tion. We have seen that this is true in respect to the 
general boards as well as to the local churches. One of 
the outstanding weaknesses of our church life is this 
over-organization. The way to correct this weakness 
is to integrate the organizations working in the educa- 
tional field as the keys are integrated in the work of 

In the process of integrating these organizations, it 
will be the aim to conserve all the elements of good 
peculiar to the respective organizations, to remove all 
over-lapping and duplication of effort, to reduce the 
volume of machinery that must be operated, and thus 
obtain all along the line an increase in effectiveness and 

Inasmuch as we cannot dispense with organization, 
we shall find it necessary to create a new type of 
division of labor between sub-organizations in order 
to achieve the purposes set before us in any well- 
conceived and orderly approach toward the problems 
of Religious Education. 

It may be well at this point to explain why some 
prefer to use "Christian Education" rather than this 
more generally current phrase "Religious Education." 
The domain of Religious Education is confined, in their 
view, to the educational work of the church, whether 
general or local, aside from the work of schools, sem- 
inaries, colleges, and universities. They make Christian 



Education cover all that is included in the idea of 
Religious Education plus the work of the church 
institutions just named and student contacts with other 
schools, colleges, seminaries, and universities. Christian 
Education, they say, therefore, is the preferable term 
to use if a church body means to integrate the teaching 
work of its sub-organizations from the home to the 
university as the digestive work of teeth, tongue, palate 
and throat are integrated. We will never have a com- 
prehensive and statesmanlike program of Christian 
Education, they tell us, until what is now known as 
Religious Education in the technical sense is integrated 
with the more formal educational machinery operated by 
the church in its schools, colleges, seminaries, and uni- 
versities. This statement holds good whether these 
institutions of learning be under the direct control of 
ecclesiastical bodies or informal relationships subsist 
with them through attendance upon them as students 
by their members and methods used by the church to 
relate itself and its program to these students. In our 
discussion, however, we shall rub out this distinction 
and use the more generally current term, Religious 
Education, to include all that both terms are meant to 
connote. The general boards in some church bodies 
are known as Boards of Education, in others as Boards 
of Religious Education, and in still others as Boards 
of Christian Education. Unless a particular board is 
referred to — in which case we shall use its proper title — 
we shall from now on refer to such boards as General 
Educational Boards. 

What we are seeking in this discussion is a completely 
integrated program of education as it affects the interest 
of the church and the Kingdom, beginning in the home 
and extending through the local church, the com- 
munity, and on into the institutions of higher learning. 
It would appear that this is the only way we can ever 
construct a comprehensive program of Religious Educa- 
tion that will consistently embody and serve the pur- 


poses of character growth and expression in churches 
and in their individual members throughout their lives. 
The whole process of education must be Christianized, 
and this can only be accomplished through the 
Christianization by integration of all the factors, forces, 
and agencies active in the development of the methods 
of all kinds that are designed to influence life and 


We will say that the General Convention, by what- 
ever name known, has provided for the integration of 
its boards concerned primarily with education. The 
persons charged with the work of reorganization will 
need to set about their tasks with very definite objec- 
tives of articulation and integration. There is room 
for considerable difference of opinion in regard to ways 
and means of attaining these objectives. It is the 
conviction of the writer that the best results would be 
achieved were the Committee to agree that such a Gen- 
eral Educational Board should endorse the divisional 
and departmental organization of the Church School. 

"Church School" is another term that needs a bit of 
clearing up at this time. It is not the old Sunday School 
re-named. The Sunday School is the Sabbath day ses- 
sion of what we mean by the Church School. The 
Church School is in charge of all the educational work 
of the church and parish taken as a whole. Among 
its sub-organizations are the Sunday School, the Daily 
Vacation Bible School, the Week Day Religious School, 
the Christian Endeavor, or other young people's 
organization, Scouts, whether for boys or girls, and 
Campfire. The colleges, the missionary, benevolent, 
social, and recreational organizations, and any other 
organization, committee, or group that undertakes 


functions educational by nature in the church or parish 
stand in need of its offices of integration, if they wish 
to be sure that their work is all help and no hindrance. 
It may seem strange to some that colleges, used in the 
generic sense to include schools, colleges, seminaries, and 
universities, should be included in a catalogue of local 
agencies of Religious Education and made to fall under 
the oversight of the Church School. This inclusion 
is justified, however, for it is plainly in line with the 
purpose we have set before us to integrate all the 
agencies of education from the home to the university. 
According to this view, our churches are educational 
units engaged in the work of Religious Education and 
eager to lend a hand at as many points as possible in 
the program of the General Educational Board. These 
local units should regard themselves as a preparatory 
religious training school for the religious training their 
boys and girls are to receive in the colleges and as 
post-graduate religious training schools to which they 
will return when they get their diplomas. The teach- 
ing and the thinking in these local units should be 
linked up in these ways with the colleges. The col- 
leges, and be it remembered that we are here using this 
word in the generic sense, owe it in their turn to these 
local units not only to keep them supplied with pas- 
tors, but with trained lay workers as well, and ground 
all who come to them for study in the principles of 
Christian idealism. We shall return to this matter 
later when we discuss the Christian Leadership Train- 
ing phase of the integrated program. 

Keeping in mind the far-reaching ramifications of the 
oversight exercised by the Church School as we have 
described its functions, we may well believe that the 
Committee would conclude that the best form of 
organization for a denominational General Educational 
Board to adopt would be one that sought to solve its 
problems of integration along the lines exemplified in 
the division of labor between departments in the 


thoroughly graded local Sabbath day branch of the 
Church School. 

The General Educational Board ought to consist of 
from five to twenty-five members, according to the size 
of the denomination and the desire to make it represent- 
ative and distribute it properly territorially. Some of 
the larger denominations may feel it to be wiser to have 
more than twenty-five members. The Board should 
not be so large as to be bulky, but it should be large 
and representative enough to command approval and 
at the same time remain efficient. This General Educa- 
tional Board will be manned by the usual officers and 
organized in accordance with the rules of government 
of the denomination. 

After its own organization, the next step of the 
Board will be to elect a general secretary, an office which 
will correspond in a general way with that of Director 
of Religious Education of the local church. In the 
larger denominations the necessity may arise for more 
than one general secretary, a situation which we find 
now in the Federal Council of Churches, which has two 
general secretaries. The general secretary will be the 
directive and mediating official of the General Educa- 
tional Board and the entire educational program of his 
denomination will head up in his office and personality. 
Whenever there is doubt as to jurisdiction touching any 
matter, the ultimate decision will rest with him. 

The general secretary will send in nominations to 
the General Educational Board for divisional and 
departmental secretaries to share with him the tasks of 
administration connected with the program of educa- 
tion for the denomination. The number and the degree 
to which the specialization of the work of these sec- 
retaries shall be carried will depend upon the size of the 
denomination. For the smaller denominations there 
will likely be only territorial division secretaries who 
will be charged with administrative, field, and editorial 
duties within their division or province. The prepara- 


tion of materials for the curriculum of Religious Educa- 
tion should be the prerogative of the General Educa- 
tional Board, and for best results actual contact with 
the constituency through the performance of admin- 
istrative and field duties should be associated with 
editorial duties on the part of these divisional sec- 
retaries. Accordingly, in the smaller denominations 
besides the general secretary, who should also be the 
editor-in-chief of all religious educational literature, 
there should be a secretary for the Children's Division, 
a secretary for the Young People's Division, a secretary 
for the Adult Division, and a secretary for Administra- 
tion and Leadership Training. 

Under this plan the college work of the General 
Educational Board would naturally be assigned to the 
secretary of the Young People's Division, and the Sum- 
mer Schools and Institutes conducted by the Board 
would naturally be under the jurisdiction of the sec- 
retary of Administration and Leadership Training. 
All the secretaries, however, should be well posted on 
the whole subject of religious education so that when 
they visit the public gatherings and assemblies of the 
church, they will be able to present the complete mes- 
sage and not merely the message of their particular 
Division. All of them should serve as faculty mem- 
bers in the Summer Schools and Institutes conducted 
by the General Educational Board. 

Of course, the larger denominations will need a much 
greater number of secretaries. In addition to these 
divisional secretaries who would take the rank of assist- 
ant general secretaries, there would be secretaries for 
sub-divisions such as the Beginners' Department, 
Primary Department, Junior Department, Intermediate 
Department, Senior Department, Young People's 
Department, the Department of the Home, the Leader- 
ship Training Department, and others, to the extent 
that the work may require and the resources of the Board 
permit. Here, again, right practice will see to it that 


each of these secretaries shall have contacts with the 
local constituencies through the performance of admin- 
istrative and field work and likewise be assigned 
editorial duties. It might also be well to say in this 
connection that room should be found also for a col- 
lege secretary, a university secretary, a seminary sec- 
retary, and other highly specialized secretaries, in the 
personnel employed by the General Educational Board 
of the larger denominations. 

Denominations large enough to be well represented 
in many parts of the country provided for what are 
known as Regional Conventions, in which smaller 
bodies such as Conferences are grouped. Such denomina- 
tions would likely possess, in addition to the general 
secretary, officials that might properly be designated as 
Regional Directors of Religious Education and also 
Conference Directors of Religious Education. These 
directors may or may not be salaried officers. Provided 
the sub-organizations are closely linked to a General 
Educational Board, an integrated program can be put 
in force without waiting for similar inter-divisional 
links to be forged. In fact, the present state of or- 
ganization in the denominations is such that these inter- 
divisional links are impossible, and it is doubtful if it 
is desirable to attempt to forge them at this time. This 
uniformity can wait till the Protestant denominations 
organically unite. 


Integration will choose the Church School as the 
right form for the local units of the denomination. In 
it the organization will be along divisional and depart* 
mental lines and the size of the school will determine 
the extent to which sub-organization will be carried. 
The ideal arrangement is to have a Director of Religious 
Education, a general administrative staff, divisional 


superintendents, departmental principals, teachers, assist- 
ant teachers, secretaries, pianists, and other helpers for 
the various departments and classes. 

A word should be said about the general staff to be 
associated with the Director of Religious Education 
who may or may not be the general superintendent of 
the Church School. In fact, it is better that he should 
not be, but that some man of fine executive ability and 
skill in presiding over mass meetings should be elected 
to this position. His general staff should also include 
a general secretary, a classification superintendent, and 
many other officials which conditions peculiar to the 
local situation may demand. 

Probably the smaller schools will find it necessary 
to have two classes in the Children's Division — the 
Beginners and Primaries in one class, the Juniors in 
another — a Young People, and an Adult Class. This 
would appear to be the minimum for any school. At 
any rate, not many schools are forced to have fewer 
than four classes. Schools of medium size should, if 
possible, divide the Children's Division into four 
classes: one for Beginners, one for Primaries, and two 
for the Juniors — one for boys and one for girls. They 
should have six classes in the Young People's Division: 
a class for boys and another for girls in each of the 
three age Departments of that Division. And if pos- 
sible there should be two classes of adults, one for 
men and one for women. A school divided into these 
twelve classes would use not the Closely Graded Les- 
sons, but the Group Graded ones up to the Young 
People's Department, where the principle of elective 
courses could then begin to function. The Uniform 
Lessons will likely continue to be used for many years 
in the smaller schools; and also in the Young People's 
and Adult Divisions, in the Children's Division, to some 
extent even of the medium-sized school. 

Corresponding to the General Educational Board of 
a denomination, the local church should have a Com- 


mittee on Education elected by the church, with the 
terms of office of its members so arranged that an un- 
broken policy can be easily maintained. This Com- 
mittee on Education should appoint the Director of 
Religious Education. Oftentimes he will be the pastor; 
but sometimes a voluntary local worker of educational 
experience will be available with sufficient leisure to 
permit him to give the necessary time to the work. 
In many instances he will be a paid, full-time lay 
worker, who has taken courses especially to prepare 
himself for this particular work of education. Many 
of the large churches now employ such Directors of 
Religious Education and give the person undertaking 
this position coordinate rank with the minister- The 
Director of Religious Education is really an educational 
pastor of the local congregation, whereas the minister 
is the pastoral educator of the local congregation. 
Upon the nomination of the Director of Religious 
Education, this Committee on Education will appoint 
all the officers of the Church School and outline the 
policies to be pursued in the conduct of the school. 
They will hold the Director of Religious Education 
responsible for the execution of their plans and policies. 
Another of their special duties will be to educate the 
church and parish up to the necessity for modern educa- 
tional plants and to a willingness to stand the expense. 
Only persons of educational vision should be elected 
to the Committee on Education, which should vary in 
number from three to seven. It is doubtful if any 
church can use more than seven persons to advantage on 
such a committee. 

The first duty of the Director of Religious Educa- 
tion will be to take a survey of the educational forces 
and agencies at work in the congregation and begin to 
integrate them through the divisional and departmental 
organization of his school into a complete Church 
School. Such a survey will no doubt reveal various 
activities, more or less educational in character, carried 


on by Christian Endeavor or other young people's 
organizations, one or more Missionary Societies, a Daily 
Vacation Bible School, a Week Day Religious School, 
the public school, Scout and Campfire organizations, 
etc., etc. He will find each of these organizations 
equipped with duly elected officers but with only a part 
of those who should be interested in their work 
definitely belonging to their membership. He will 
necessarily have to use tact in his performance of the 
task of integrating these organizations, and it may take 
him several years to bring about conditions which he 
would consider even moderately satisfactory; yet he 
will make these first moves with his main objective 
clearly before him and approach nearer his ideal as 
rapidly as the local situation warrants. In addition, it 
should be said that eventually every one of these sub- 
organizations should be integrated or cross-linked 
closely first with the Division into which it falls, then 
with the sub-division or Department, and, where nec- 
essary, with the still smaller unit, i. e., the individual 
class. The most difficult of these departments to lock 
together in this way will be the Intermediate. We will 
illustrate how this work of integration can be finally 
and effectively accomplished in this department, and the 
same principles that accomplish it there will apply to 
all the others. 


Youngsters of the Intermediate age constitute the 
membership, partly at least, of organizations like the 
Christian Endeavor, Missions, Boy Scouts, Campfire 
Girls, Daily Vacation Bible Schools, and Classes in 
week day religious instruction. They also belong to 
the public school, the Hi-Y, and the Girl Reserves. 
We must tie all these lines of work together by using 
the same officers and leaders to man them as those that 


head the Sunday School. For example, the Superin- 
tendent of the Intermediate Department of the Church 
School should either be the Superintendent of the Inter- 
mediate Christian Endeavor Society and of the Young 
People's Missionary Society, or he should be the one to 
designate which other officer or teacher of the depart- 
ment shall serve in this capacity. There is no need to 
have independent sub-organizations of this kind which 
have no place to turn for recruits except to the boys and 
girls of this department. If it is a good thing for 
members of the Intermediate Department of the Sunday 
School like Tom and Sue to belong to Intermediate 
Christian Endeavor and to the Young People's Mis- 
sionary Society, it is also good and desirable for Sam 
and Mary likewise to belong. That is to say, all the 
children in the Intermediate Department of the Sunday 
School should meet as a department in the Christian 
Endeavor Society, which should serve, in the language 
of current thinking and practice, as their expressional 
organization, and include manual training and arts 
along with dramatization, visitation, and general social 
service, as well as the group prayer meetings now held 
in its name. The question need never then be raised 
as to whether they wish to belong or not; and the same 
would be true of the Young People's Missionary 
Society. The Intermediate Department of the Church 
School should meet as a whole and function as a unit in 
every case, not only in its Sunday School sessions, but in 
its Christian Endeavor Society and Missionary Society 
sessions as well. The same officers and teachers who 
officiate on the Sabbath in this department should also 
officiate at these other meetings, so that the department 
can carry out a consistent program of education and 
the children constituting its membership be conscious 
of no break in their experiences. 

Now when it comes to the Boy Scouts and Campfire 
Girls, officers and teachers who work with this Inter- 
mediate Department of the Church School should be 


chosen as the Scout masters and assistant Scout masters 
of the troup or troups, in accordance with the require- 
ments of the local situation, and likewise the guardians 
or assistant guardians for the Campfire girls. In this 
way a consistent triple program of instruction, expres- 
sion, and recreation can be carried out in the local 
church, and it is doubtful if such a program can be 
carried out on any other basis. It will also surprise 
those who undertake to interlock their work after this 
method how gladly boys and girls will cooperate with 
them and how willingly they will consent to participate 
in all three branches of Church School activities. As it 
now is, a boy sometimes becomes so interested in the 
Scouts that he neglects the Sunday School. A particular 
girl not infrequently becomes so interested in the Camp- 
fire that she does likewise. Also, as things are now, 
Christian Endeavor and Missions reach only a small 
part of the full parish quota of boys and girls in any 
adequate way. 

This plan also fits in beautifully with the claims of 
the Week Day Religious School and the Daily Vacation 
Bible School, as well as with the public school upon 
the time and mind and strength of the same boys and 
girls. The Intermediate age corresponds to the Junior 
High School period in the public school system. Some 
of the teachers of these boys and girls in the public 
schools should be secured, if possible, for service in the 
Sunday School, Daily Vacation Bible School, or Week 
Day Religious School so as to strengthen the impression 
that all these agencies are part and parcel of the one 
program of education, both secular and religious. At 
any rate, the teachers on Sunday of these Intermediate 
age boys and girls should be, as far as possible, their 
teachers in the Week Day Religious School and in the 
Daily Vacation Bible School. 

When the local church has put on such a triply 
unified program of Religious Education for its boys and 
girls as we have suggested, there will be no need for 


the Y. M. C. A. to have its Hi-Y Club for boys, or 
for the Y. W. C. A., to have its Girl Reserves. Their 
continued existence would only complicate the task of 
schedule making unduly, and serve, though un- 
designedly, to wean them away from devotion and 
loyalty to the church. Any other organization or 
movement that promises to serve the life of Intermediate 
boys and girls to fresh advantage should be linked up 
with the Church School as a sub-organization of the 
Intermediate Department, for the Church School, as 
we have said, must claim the oversight of all the agencies 
of education in the local church. The books loaned 
to the boys and girls, from the Church School library 
and other public collections, should be in line with the 
general program of education; their recreation and 
social life should also be geared into it. It will thus 
be seen that the creation of this triply unified plan of 
administration is therefore a method either of eliminat- 
ing organizations or of ending their conduct as free 


The plans and suggestions outlined above for the 
re-organization of the Intermediate Department can be 
applied successfully to all the other Departments and 
Divisions of the Church School. 

We append herewith a chart, showing how these 
various organizations may be integrated in the Church 


Student religious activities at the colleges, too, suffer 
from over-organization. On a typical college campus, 
a recent survey discovered organizations attached to the 
Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., Christian Endeavor, 
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Sunday School, and Ministerial Association. This 
college was located in a community in which there was 
no church except that conducted on the campus by the 
college pastor. The citizens of this community also 
belonged to it and constituted its permanent member- 

Each of these organizations had a complete set of 
officers and insisted on having a meeting each week for 
prayer and discussion. One student was president of 
three of them and during the week attended five prayer 
or discussion groups. In addition, three of these groups 
had voluntary Bible study courses and this same student 
was enrolled in two of them. 

The religious life of the campus was artificial in the 
extreme, it had absconded well-nigh completely from 
solid realities. It was emptying itself away in idle 
forms of prayer, praise, testimony, and a little study 
of a light sort. The graduates of this college were 
going out into life with the false notion that this was 
the way to serve the spiritual interests of the Kingdom. 

To remedy this situation, the survey conducted by 
the Department of Religious Education of the college 
recommended that these free-lance organizations on the 
campus be integrated and made sub-organizations under 
the oversight of a single control. The following con- 
stitution and by-laws were adopted, under which the 
religious life of this college has been operating with fine 
success for several years. The name given to the 
integrated religious organization of the campus was 
"The Religious Activities Organization." The con- 
stitution and by-laws follow: 



Feeling the need of closer cooperation 
among the various religious organizations 


ministering to the spiritual life of the student 
body and desiring to correlate and coordinate 
them in such a way as to avoid needless dupli- 
cation of effort, while at the same time de- 
signing to conserve and promote the best 
interest of each organization as of each 
student, we, the cabinets of the said religious 
organizations, have adopted the following 

Article I — Name 

The name of this organization shall be 
The Religious Activities Organization. 

Article II — Purpose 

The purpose of the organization shall be 
that set forth in the preamble to this Con- 
stitution, modified and enlarged from time 
to time as experience may suggest and the 
constituent bodies decide. 

Article III — Members 

The members of this organization shall be 
the cabinets of the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., 
Christian Endeavor Society, Student Volun- 
teer Band, College Sunday School, and Min- 
isterial Association, with such other allied re- 
ligious organizations as may by vote be ad- 

Article IV— Officers 

The organization shall have as its officers, 
a president, vice-president, secretary, and 
treasurer, whose duties shall be those pre- 
scribed for such officers in Roberts' Rules of 
Order. These officers shall be elected by the 
cabinet members of the constituent bodies 
and may be chosen from the whole group of 
college students. Other officers may from 
time to time be added, as the organization 
may decide. 


Article V — Departments 

The organization shall have as many de- 
partments as there are constituent bodies and 
the cabinets of these bodies shall constitute 
these departments. These departments shall 
report to the proper outside organizations 
the work of their respective department and 
be responsible for the development of the 
same upon the campus. 

Article VI — Committees 

This organization shall have the follow- 
ing committees: Group Meetings, Study 
Courses, Social Activities, Budget, Member- 
ship, and Community Service, and such 
others as may from time to time be added. 
Each committee shall have six members, and 
at no time less than one for each constituent 
body. The president shall appoint these 
committees after consultation with the presi- 
dent of each constituent body. 

Article VII — Duties of Committees 

Section I. Group Meetings — This com- 
mittee shall arrange for as many prayer and 
discussion groups and other types of meet- 
ing as in its judgment is wise. There shall 
be at least one monthly public service for 
all the groups and all group meetings shall 
be held at the same time on Sunday, but not 
at the Sunday School hour. There shall also 
from time to time be group meetings for 
men alone and for women alone. There 
shall be prayer and discussion groups as fol- 
lows: Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., Chris- 
tian Endeavor, Student Volunteer Band, 
and Ministerial Association. Other groups 
may from time to time be provided. When- 
ever any group numbers more than forty it 
shall be divided. This committee shall meet 
on Mondays following chapel with the Fac- 


ulty Committee on Religious Organizations 
to plan its weekly programs in detail. 

Section 2. Study Courses — This commit- 
tee shall construct a program of Christian 
themes for the year and arrange with the Sun- 
day School Superintendent to have them 
given in the College Sunday School Classes. 

Section 3. Social Activities — This com- 
mittee shall have charge of the stunts and 
other social activities of the constituent reli- 
gious bodies. 

Section 4. Budget — This committee shall 
canvass the student body to raise the bud- 
get submitted by them for the constituent re- 
ligious bodies and adopted for the year for 
each, using the weekly envelope system of 
collection for the pledges secured. 

Section 5. Membership — This committee 
shall look after securing members, attend- 
ance, and other such items as naturally fall 
to such a body. 

Section 6. Community Service — This 
committee shall articulate its work with the 
Department of Religious Education of the 
college, assisting in every way possible, par- 
ticularly in the week-day religious work, 
the supervised play, the Boy Scouts, and 
Campfire girls of the community graded 
school pupils, and also taking part in the 
work for the negroes and the Christian Or- 
phanage, and in such other work as may 
from time to time be instituted. 

Article VIII — Amendments 

This Constitution may be amended by a 
two-thirds vote of the cabinets of the constit- 
uent bodies and the organization's officers, 
after a month's notice has been given on the 
college bulletin boards. By-laws may be 
passed at any meeting by a two-thirds vote 
of those present. 



1. All young women members of the 
prayer and discussion groups shall be counted 
as members of the Y. W. C. A., and so re- 
ported to the national organization. 

2. All young men members of the prayer 
and discussion groups shall be counted as 
members of the Y. M. C. A., and so reported 
to the national organization. 

3. All, both young men and young 
women, members of the prayer and discussion 
groups, shall be counted as members of the 
Christian Endeavor Society, and so reported 
to the national and denominational organi- 

4. The conditions of joining the Minis- 
terial Association and Volunteer Band must 
be strictly adhered to in counting their mem- 

5. Study courses may be reported for each 
organization, its department determining the 
method of arriving at the membership. 

6. Whenever the field representatives of 
any constituent body visit the college, they 
shall deal with the department of the Reli- 
gious Activities Organization having to do 
with the particular kind of work, and not 
with the officers of the Religious Activities Or- 

7. No membership fee shall be charged 
any member of any constituent body, though 
subscriptions may be taken for such purposes 
as the department may recommend and the 
Religious Activities Organization approve. 

8. Each department shall vote out the part 
of the budget that falls to it, the treasurer 
of the Religious Activities Organization hav- 
ing first received and paid the same over to 
the proper department treasurer. 

9. Only one regular business meeting a 


month shall be held. Called meetings may- 
be held when necessary. 

10. Meetings of the deoartments and of 
the committees may be held whenever neces- 

11. Should any cabinet member of any 
constituent body be elected to an office in the 
Religious Activities Organization, his office 
in the constituent body, by such election, 
becomes vacated, and that body will be ex- 
pected to elect his successor. 

12. Elections to all departments shall be 
held on the second Tuesday in May of each 

13. Officers of the Religious Activities Or- 
ganization shall be elected on the third Tues- 
day in May of each year. 

14. No person shall serve as a member of 
more than one department. 

15. A member of a department may also 
serve on one committee, but not on more than 

16. Enrollment in and attendance on the 
Study Courses shall be voluntary, but two 
absences in a month, except for sickness or 
other providential cause, shall exclude a mem- 
ber from a course. 


With our desire to do all the good we can in our 
local Church Schools, it is doubtful if we can promote 
pupils by any other standard, while attendance con- 
tinues to be voluntary, than age or the public school 
grade. But we have a powerful incentive to secure 
attendance and excellence all along the line in the form 
of Certificates of Recognition given to those who have 
attained certain standards and in doing this publicly. 
All others will just be promoted. 



Athearn: Religious Education and American Democracy. 

Athearn: A National System of Education. 

Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook: The 

Teaching Work of the Church. Ch. IX. 
Brown: The Church in America. Ch. XIV. 
Squires: A Parish Program of Religious Education. Ch. VI. 
Harper: The New Church for the New Time. Ch. III. 
Winchester: Religious Education and Democracy. Ch. XI. 
Evans: The Sunday School Building and Its Equipment. 
Cope: Education for Democracy. Chs. XVI, XVII. 
Bower: The Educational Task of the Local Church. Ch. III. 

Chapter IV 


Theory and practice with regard to the curriculum 
of Religious Education is in a state of flux un- 
precedented in the history of the church. This attitude 
of uncertainty applies both to the points of emphasis 
in its aims and to what shall be called the right methods 
of achieving them. There is no agreement even as to 
the nature of the child, nor as to what constitutes 
Christian character. Thought on the whole subject 
is in a state of unstable equilibrium, and a wag has 
aptly nicknamed the curriculum a "Queericulum." 

The most hopeful sign of a change for the better in 
this situation is the determined effort on the part of 
the International Lesson Committee to solve the prob- 
lems involved. A sub-committee, under the leadership 
of Dean W. C. Bower, is working on an integrated 
curriculum, by which his committee means a curriculum 
that will bind the instruction laid out to be given on 
the Sabbath with that prescribed for the Week Day 
Schools of Religion and the Daily Vacation Bible 
Schools so that they will interlock and supplement and 
re-enforce one another. The Department of Research 
and Service of the International Council of Religious 
Education is also experimenting on specific problems 
and conducting exhaustive surveys at the request of 
Dean Bower's committee, in addition to its other impor- 
tant work. An exhaustive inquiry is being conducted 
by Teachers College of Columbia University also, 
under the leadership of Hugh Hartshorne and Mark A. 
May, with special reference to character education. 



Other agencies, too, are doing investigation work on the 

Meanwhile, we may define the curriculum as the sum 
total of the educational influences that enter into the 
direction and formation of Christian character. Some 
may think that the primary purpose of such a cur- 
riculum should be the impartation of certain forms of 
useful knowledge. Others will consider that the chief 
end of the curriculum is the provision which it makes 
for moral discipline. A third group will insist that 
the aim should be to take the racial experiences as a 
guide and see to it that the individual in orderly proc- 
ess shall repeat the experiences of the race in his spirit- 
ual growth. A fourth party will insist on the value 
of the normal and natural experiences of the particular 
age-group to which a student belongs and would 
evaluate all curriculum material in terms of its fitness 
to minister to such normal experiences and tendencies. 

A sub-committee of the International Lesson Com- 
mittee, of which Dean Bower is the chairman, is pro- 
ceeding with its work of curriculum making from the 
standpoint that student experience should be the 
paramount influence in determining the curriculum. 
This committee is also fully persuaded that the cur- 
riculum which finally wins the day will be pupil-cen- 
tered rather than material-centered. A pupil-centered 
curriculum is a curriculum immersed in the experiences 
and tendencies normal to the child year by year, from 
which it makes its selection of those which have most 
value for character development, and then seeks for 
materials and methods by which to motivate, pur- 
posively control and direct these normal tendencies and 
experiences into the channels of Christian idealism and 
the development of Christian character. Instruction 
must pass over into conduct before Religious Education 
is complete. As we learn more of the child, changes 
in the curriculum will be made to correspond. A fixed 


curriculum in a world of enlarging experiences is, there- 
fore, bound to be a failure. 

Keeping these general considerations in mind, we 
should say that far more is meant in this discussion by 
an Integrated Curriculum than Dean Bower and his 
committee are attempting. We mean that all the 
materials and apparatus calculated to exercise a 
formative religious influence over the child from the 
home to the university are to be integrated into one 
self-consistent program of Religious Education. We 
do not mean that this curriculum can ever be completed. 
It must always be subject to change and enlargement. 
There will be constant need for readjustments as the 
world of our experience grows and the applications of 
our knowledge of psychology to Religious Education 
increase. Nevertheless, the principles that should under- 
lie an integrated curriculum can be stated with certainty, 
and the application of these principles left to the 
General Educational Boards and to the Directors of 
Religious Education in local churches. 


Very likely the General Educational Boards of the 
different church bodies will make use of the lesson 
materials in course of preparation by the International 
Lesson Committee. In passing, we may say that we 
hope that this committee will soon be made an integral 
part of the International Council of Religious Educa- 
tion. This does not necessarily mean that any General 
Educational Board will use all the material sponsored 
by this committee just as it has been prepared or 
recommended. Modifications and adaptations will be 
in order as a particular General Educational Board may 
in its best judgment determine. 

The International Lesson Committee has already 
prepared three separate courses of study, known as the 


Uniform Lessons, the Closely Graded Lessons, and the 
Group Graded Lessons. They are now at work laying 
out an Integrated Curriculum, as we have said, under 
the leadership of Dean Bower. It will be the duty of 
the several General Educational Boards, either sep- 
arately or in cooperation, to edit these various series 
of lessons recommended by the committee and then to 
circulate them throughout their constituency. 

The ideal selection, of course, is the Closely Graded 
Series with a special course for each year, beginning 
with the fourth year and reaching through the senior 
year at high school. The usefulness of these courses 
of lessons, however, is confined to the larger schools. 
Schools of the medium size will find the Group Graded 
Lessons, which begin with a Primary and conclude 
with a Senior Department graded by three year cycles, 
much more suitable for their needs. While the last of 
the three, the Uniform Lessons, cannot be justified 
on pedagogical grounds, nor on grounds of child 
experience, expediency and hallowed custom for many 
years yet will afflict the work of Religious Education 
with them. Smaller schools, particularly those in rural 
sections, will continue to use them, and because of the 
profit accruing from their publication, certain publishers 
and lesson writers will continue to defend and advocate 
them. For the Young People's Department, that begins 
with the eighteenth year, and for the Adult Division, 
these lessons may serve a useful purpose, but in the 
Children's Division and the Intermediate and Senior 
Departments of the Young People's Division, the 
spiritual interests of the children and young people 
demand their discontinuance in favor of the Group 
Graded or the Closely Graded Lessons. 

The custom in practice at present of permitting Mis- 
sionary Societies, Christian Endeavor Societies, and 
other organizations and causes to introduce courses of 
study to be followed by selected groups will be dis- 
continued in an integrated program. In editing the 


lesson materials for its constituency, a General Educa- 
tional Board will give special emphasis in its treatment 
of the lesson materials to the various denominational 
causes and enterprises on the dates set for that purpose 
in the calendar. This will be particularly true of the 
materials of the curriculum prescribed for use from the 
fourth year through the seventeenth. Of course, a 
General Educational Board will confer with the other 
general boards of its own denomination in regard to 
their plans, and will integrate them by incorporating 
these aims, objectives and appeals in their treatment and 
editing of the materials of study. In this way it will 
no longer be necessary for any of the several constituent 
bodies of the church to undertake to organize special 
study groups in local churches to the undoing of the 
regular curriculum and the confusion and dismay of 
the local leadership. 

It remains to be said, however, that, in the Young 
People's Division, beginning with the eighteenth year, 
and in the Adult Division, the General Educational 
Board should provide for elective courses, conforming 
these courses as far as possible to the prescribed courses 
of study and including in the curriculum for these ages 
the special courses urged by the constituent boards. 
For example, when the period set for the study of 
foreign missions has arrived, the General Educational 
Board should have selected or edited courses ready for 
use that will introduce the young people from the 
eighteenth year and the adults of the local churches to 
the foreign mission study books as now annually pro- 
vided, or to their equivalent, and should urge their 
constituency to select and pursue this line of study. 

In actual practice, the General Educational Board 
will probably find that the offer of alternative courses 
will be the most feasible policy to pursue in the Young 
People's Division from the eighteenth year and in the 
Adult Division, and these courses should cover, in 


addition to those that follow the regular schedule of 
the Church Year, other courses such as the following: 
Teacher Training, Social Service, Stewardship, Life- 
Work, Personal Workers, Religious Doctrine, Missions, 
Philosophy of Religion, Psychology of Religion, His- 
tory of Christianity, Comparative Religions, Training 
the Devotional Life, Soul-Winning, Religious Art, For 
New Converts, Geography of Bible Lands, Child 
Nature and Nurture, Old Testament, New Testament, 
Christian Union, Religious Education in the Church, 
Religious Education in the Home, History of Religious 
Education, Church History, The Church and Industry, 
Sacred Music, Christian Internationalism, Parents' 
Problems, Life Problems of Young People, Life of 
Christ, and Christian Essentials. This is a transcript 
of the list of such courses now offered by one of the 
General Educational Boards. Of course, this list can 
be modified to suit. After a period of years, a splendid 
curriculum can be developed that will adapt itself to 
local needs, promote the understanding of the principles 
of Christian character, incorporate these principles into 
Christian living, and articulate itself with the pro- 
grams of promotion of the constituent boards of the 
denomination. All this can be done without introduc- 
ing any new machinery in the denomination and in 
the local churches, and with an efficiency that will be 
appreciated by all. 

The General Educational Board will also, in its 
curriculum building, provide for Leadership Training 
in institutions of higher learning, in summer schools, 
institutes, and conferences. This work of Leadership 
Training will be integrated by inter-lockings that will 
be provided with the general curriculum and program 
of the denomination. Detailed discussion of this mat- 
ter will be postponed, however, until we come to con- 
sider in a special way the program of Leadership Train- 


The promotion of Reading Courses by the General 
Educational Board will become a very fruitful source 
of benefit to the entire personnel of a church. These 
courses should be for pupils of all the various ages in 
the local Church Schools and also for the officers and 
teachers in these schools, and they should be brought 
into line and integrated thoroughly with the cur- 
riculum. They should help in the development of 
character on the part of pupils and result in a high 
degree of professional efficiency on the part of officers 
and teachers. The denominational Board of Pub- 
lishing will cooperate with the General Educational 
Board in promoting these Reading Courses. We shall 
recur to this matter when we take up the consideration 
of the problem of an integrated program of denomina- 
tional publishing. 

In the building of its curriculum the General Educa- 
tional Board must keep in mind the Week Day Schools 
of Religion and the Daily Vacation Bible Schools of the 
denomination. Pending the issuance of the integrated 
curriculum of the International Lesson Committee, it 
should select, approve, or otherwise provide courses of 
study for these classes which will be in line and integrate 
with the lesson materials taught in the Sunday Schools, 
so that the religious experience and spiritual develop- 
ment of the pupils may proceed in an unbroken 

The General Educational Board will keep in mind 
also the different phases of work that have been brought 
under the wing of the Church School, such as Boy 
Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire, Hi-Y, Girl Reserves, 
public school, Christian Endeavor, or other young 
people's work, Missions, Colleges, and any other 
recreational, social or benevolent sub-organization or 
enterprise which it may appear advisable to approve and 
employ. Some of these organizations or enterprises 
have courses of study which they wish pursued. Where 


these courses of study are approved, they should be 
adjusted and integrated with the regular courses given 
in the Sunday and week day sessions of the Church 
School. By cross-reference treatment in the curriculum 
for the various Sunday and week day sessions of the 
Church School, all the aims, ideals, and aspirations of 
these several organizations or enterprises can by their 
use as source material for illustrations and in other 
ways be woven in and thoroughly integrated with the 
regular curriculum. 

The educational side of Christian Endeavor is rather 
more difficult of integration. The fact that this society 
does not conform its nomenclature to the divisional and 
departmental gradation of the Church School gives 
rise to misunderstanding and confusion. The Inter- 
mediate Christian Endeavor Society, for example, takes 
in the same people divided between the Intermediate 
and Senior Departments of the Young People's Division 
of the Church School. The requirements for member- 
ship in the Senior Society correspond to those of the 
Young People's Division. There is need for readjust- 
ment. The United Society of Christian Endeavor 
should be willing to change its nomenclature to corre- 
spond with the more generally accepted terms. It 
should also provide topics specially adapted to each de- 
partment of the Church School and in line with the 
courses there pursued. In the treatment of the curricu- 
lum materials for the Sunday and the week day sessions 
of the Church School, the General Educational Board 
in turn should introduce cross references to the mate- 
rials in the courses of the Christian Endeavor Society 
or other young people's organization, wherever possible 
in the way of illustration and otherwise. This would 
make it impossible for those who attend the sessions of 
the Church School or other of its sub-organizations to 
feel that there is a conscious break between those sessions 
and the Christian Endeavor meetings. When the ex- 


prcssional program comes up for discussion we will 
have far more to say about the reorganization and re- 
construction of Christian Endeavor and the other or- 
ganizations of the church which correspond to it. It 
should further be said that the offering of courses of 
study, such as those on Missions, Stewardship, Expert 
Endeavor, and the like in the Christian Endeavor 
groups, should be discontinued as an unwarranted ad- 
dition to Christian Endeavor work. If these courses 
are to be offered under the auspices of this organization 
or enterprise at all they should be substituted and pur- 
sued during the time set aside for the regular Christian 
Endeavor group meetings: otherwise they should be 
drawn into and integrated with the curriculum given 
in the Sunday School or one of the week day sessions 
of the Church School. 

In its treatment of curriculum materials, the General 
Educational Board will be alert to integrate the religious 
instruction both for the Sunday and week day sessions 
of the Church School with the curriculum of the pub- 
lic school by incorporating as many points of contact as 
possible between them. The editors of the curriculum 
of Religious Education, therefore, should not only look 
at the materials which they propose to incorporate from 
the standpoint of their own curriculum, but they should 
familiarize themselves with the curriculum of the pub- 
lic school, in order that they may by cross-reference to 
and use of public school curriculum material as illus- 
trations and in other ways supply contacts with the sub- 
ject matter pursued by the pupils in the public schools. 
The same attitudes toward life should be inculcated in 
both schools. In this way the notion that public educa- 
tion is secular and that Religious Education is sacred 
will be overcome by the inevitable realization on the 
part of the pupils that all knowledge has spiritual quali- 
ties and applications. The present hiatus between pub- 
lic education and religious education leads to most un- 


fortunate consequences, and a splendid door of service 
is open to the leaders in the field of Religious Educa- 
tion in bridging this unfortunate gap. A sound psy- 
chology of Religious Education imperatively and 
absolutely demands that this misunderstanding shall 
be corrected. 


We have already described the integration of the re- 
ligious activities in the college through a Religious Ac- 
tivities Organization. Provision was made in this 
method of integration for elective "Study Courses" to 
be pursued in the Sunday School classes of college stu- 
dents. The General Educational Board should recom- 
mend to colleges, or supply them with courses of study 
suitable for this purpose. The colleges will also offer 
in their Departments of Bible, Religious Education, and 
Christian Education, 1 as part of their regular instruc- 
tion and work that counts toward a degree courses that 
deal with the principles and methods of Religious Edu- 
cation and that will also drill the foundation princi- 
ples into their students of a consistent Christian charac- 
ter. We shall have more to say on this point when we 
undertake to discuss Leadership Training. In its edit- 
ing and treatment of the curriculum materials for the 
Sunday and week day sessions of the Church School, 
the General Educational Board will also seek for oppor- 
tunities to make references to the various forms of train- 
ing for life given in the colleges and other educational 
institutions connected with the church, and in every 
way possible endeavor to sow the seed of loyalty to 
these institutions and foster a disposition to attend them 
when of age and afterward contribute to their financial 

1 Used by some colleges to include both Bible and Religious Edu- 
cation courses. 



One of the finest opportunities for happy strokes of 
integration in making up and carrying out a compre- 
hensive program of Religious Education offers itself in 
the period of worship in the various divisions and de- 
partments and, in case of small schools, the general 
school. Stories or short addresses should be introduced 
into these periods of worship which will feature the 
ideals, aims, objectives, plans, and programs of the vari- 
ous constituent boards of the denomination. These 
periods should be taken advantage of by the General 
Educational Board to bring before the local schools 
these items of such tremendous import in the education 
of the whole church in the whole program of the de- 
nomination. The General Educational Board will call 
in the assistance of the constituent boards in the prepara- 
tion of materials for this purpose and pass the sifted 
results on as suggestions to the local church. In the 
final recasting of this material, the General Educational 
Board must keep in mind questions of differences of ad- 
justment to fit the closely graded school, the medium- 
sized school, and the very small school. It will also 
provide for mass meetings at special times in all the 
schools, at which pageants will form part of the gen- 
eral exercises. Naturally, also, the board will bear in 
mind the subjects of study from Sunday to Sunday 
in suggesting materials to be used in the periods of wor- 
ship for the local Church Schools. In this way, in ad- 
dition to the integration by means of incidental cross- 
references that is possible in the lesson set for study for 
the Sunday and week day sessions of the Church School, 
the General Educational Board will be enabled to bring 
the objectives and appeals of the denomination as a 
whole before the constituency, in the uplifting atmos- 
phere of worship. Such use of the periods of worship 
for a generation will produce a membership in any 


denomination thoroughly informed and intelligently 
devoted to the whole program of the whole church. 
The material turned over to the local Church Schools 
for use in this worship period will be varied in charac- 
ter, but there is no doubt that story material, human 
interest material, and material designed to motivate con- 
duct in Christian channels will constitute a large per- 
centage and yield a correspondingly large harvest of 
good. One of the Boards of Christian Education in 
its general monthly periodical for leaders in the work 
of Religious Education publishes a list of things to do 
in each issue and supplements these general suggestions 
with pamphlets and other literature sent directly to 
these local leaders. 


Betts: The Curriculum of Religious Education. 

Bower: The Curriculum of Religious Education. 

Collings: An Experiment With a Project Curriculum. 

Dewey: The Child and the Curriculum 

Bobbit: The Curriculum. Chs. I, VI. 

Meriam: Child Life and the Curriculum. Chs. V-XII. 

Wells: A Project Curriculum. Sections II, III, IV. 

Charters: Curriculum Construction. Chs. I, V. 

Bobbitt: How to Make a Curriculum. Chs. I-V, XIX. 

McKendey: Correlation of Public School and Week Day 

Religious Curriculum. Religious Education. Vol. XXI, 

pp. 96-101. 

Chapter V 


By the word "expressional" we do not mean that 
expression contains no element of instruction and that 
the two words represent two separate and distinct con- 
cepts. Both are necessary in the most effective teach- 
ing. There is no principle of educational psychology 
so firmly established as that knowledge does not be- 
come formative of character until it has issued into con- 
duct. We also know that knowledge rises up out of 
experience as meaning. Impression must march forth 
in expression, expression must in turn react on impres- 
sion to its enrichment and responsiveness to control, or 
the whole educational scheme or program fails to bear 
fruit. In the programs of Religious Education that 
have been characteristic of the churches since 1780, 
however, we find the curricula material-centered rather 
than pupil-centered. They have had to do with Chris- 
tian doctrine mainly rather than with Christian ethics. 
The paramount object has been to bring people to the 
point where they would accept certain creeds or for- 
mulated doctrines, because these creeds or doctrines were 
thought to have saving influence over their fate in life. 

There is no discounting the fact that knowledge of 
God's revealed will and purpose and the sense of per- 
sonal acquaintance with Him is one of the hemispheres 
of Christian experience. But the sphere of the spiritual 
life is not complete until the other hemisphere of Chris- 
tian character and conduct has also been included in the 
program of spiritual redemption. That complete pro- 
gram must eventually result in a Christian social order. 



All we need to do to be convinced that this second 
hemisphere is a necessity is to take one look at the un- 
christian principles and ideals that disfigure industry, 
the public press, politics, and international relations, to 
mention only a few of the many outstanding instances 
of failure to appreciate this second prerequisite of the 
Christian way for the life of men and the institutions 
that serve their life. 

American Protestantism has emphasized the need for 
the last half century to Christianize the social order. At 
the same time with a parallel sincerity the leaders of 
the church have stressed the importance of the mystical 
and personal experience of God in the individual life. 
European Protestantism finds it difficult to understand 
the double American demand with its social service 
programs, and insists consistently that the personal and 
mystical acquaintance with God and His revealed will 
and purpose constitutes the whole circle of Christian 
obligation and privilege. This became clearly evident 
in the sessions of the Universal Conference on Life and 
Work held in Stockholm, Sweden, in August, 1925. 
If nothing else can be credited to this monumental gath- 
ering of the Protestant Communions of the world than 
the contrast in views and attitudes between Old World 
and New World Christian leaders, the conference was 
more than justified. We may safely expect that Euro- 
pean Protestants in the future will become increasingly 
aware of the necessity for programs of Christian social 
redemption, and also that the American Protestant 
Church will gain an intensified vision of the necessity 
for a personal experience of God and a more intimate 
knowledge of His self-revelation. 

The details of the execution of an expressional pro- 
gram of Religious Education must not conflict but be 
integrated with the balance of the curriculum. Build- 
ers of curricula must keep steadily in mind that one 
of their chief aims should be suggestions for embody- 
ing Christian principles in action and that the resultant 


improvement in conduct which follows upon appropri- 
ate outlets for them in expression is a direct and essen- 
tial portion of the teaching process. It is not enough 
to provide haphazard opportunities to express them- 
selves for the pupils of the local Church Schools. Ex- 
pressional activities for the pupils of these schools to 
engage in must be found that grow out of the soil of 
their curricula, as flowers grow out of garden soil. The 
violation or neglect of this principle will mean failure 
of the curriculum materials properly to function; and it 
must not be forgotten that the most effective teaching 
arises out of expressional experiences which charge 
information with meaning and equip it with power to 
control and motivate conduct. 


In 1881, Rev. Francis E. Clark became deeply con- 
scious of how limited the opportunities of his young 
people were for religious expression. The mid-week 
prayer meeting afforded occasions for discussion to the 
adults of the church, but there was no such provision 
for the children and the young people. So he organized 
the Christian Endeavor Movement in the Williston 
Congregational Church of Portland, Maine, February 
2, 1881. That there was real need for this movement 
is amply evidenced by the phenomenal growth it has 
enjoyed throughout the world, which has continued in 
spite of the fact that similar organizations, denomi- 
national in scope, soon sprang up as its competitors. 
The Christian Endeavor Society is based on a sound 
psychology, in its insistence that there should be no 
impression without expression. Those were days when 
young people were sternly admonished to keep quiet 
and listen to their elders, and it was a veritable boon 
and blessing to these young people to provide them this 
opportunity for the expression of personal religious 


conviction and the giving of religious testimony and 
experience. The trouble was that the Christian En- 
deavor Movement did not carry the psychological prin- 
ciple on which it was founded to a logical conclusion. 
Something more is required in the way of expression 
than testimony and public witness to religious con- 
viction and experience. We have already intimated, 
too, that another shortcoming on the side of duplica- 
tion and interference of the Christian Endeavor Move- 
ment is to be found in its setting up of a separate or- 
ganization for the young people. We have suggested 
how this society in all its divisions can be integrated 
with the Church School by giving its consent to be 
treated as a sub-organization and letting the program of 
this prayer and discussion group likewise be adjusted 
to the rest of the curriculum of the Church School. 

If the Christian Endeavor Society continues to meet 
on Sunday but at a different time from the Sunday 
School, it will necessarily settle down into a prayer 
and discussion group that puts on occasional pageants 
and specially prepared programs, in which the prin- 
ciples, ideals, aims, and motives of the Christian life 
will be appropriately emphasized. In Church Schools 
where this is the practice, it is especially desirable that 
the topics set for discussion in these Christian En- 
deavor meetings shall definitely work in and thus be 
integrated with the instructional work of the Sunday 
School, and that every cross contact possible will be 
made also with the instructional work of the week day 
sessions of the Church School. This closeness of con- 
text between sentiments expressed in the testimony and 
experiential meetings of Christian Endeavor and the 
more technically instructional sessions of the Church 
School is necessary and fundamental, if the views given 
utterance in these Christian Endeavor meetings are to 
rest on a basis of sound information and are not to be 
mere vaporings. This will call for a radical recon- 
struction in the present independent method of choos- 


ing its topics on the part of the United Society of Chris- 
tian Endeavor or other young people's organizations, 
or else the topics chosen must undergo a radical adapta- 
tion by the editors and curriculum builders of the Gen- 
eral Educational Board. 

There is no sound reason, however, for confining 
the meetings of the Christian Endeavor or other Young 
People's Societies to Sunday, and, as a matter of fact, 
Christian Endeavor has all through its history engaged 
in week day activities. These have generally been of 
the social and recreational type, though there have 
been instances of class work. There is an open door 
of opportunity for expressional work in the local 
Church School, and there is no good reason why the 
Christian Endeavor Society, or other young people's 
organizations that will consent to be treated as one 
of its sub-organizations should not enter this door 
and appropriate and conserve the vital interests of chil- 
dren and youth by educating them to do things of a 
wholesome character together. 

Scouts and Campfires have acquired a wonderful hold 
on boys and girls because they have provided ex- 
pressional activities embodying elements of instruction, 
and so equipped themselves with a well-rounded and 
consistent educational program. We have already 
shown how these groups, by consenting to be treated 
as sub-organizations, may be integrated with the 
Church School and with its curriculum. The activities 
of the Scouts and the Campfires might also then be 
readily articulated with the expressional program of the 
local Church School. 

Manual Training for boys and young men and 
Manual Arts for girls and young women offer splen- 
did opportunities for learning to do various things 
which make a gripping appeal. Manual Training and 
Manual Arts work, however, must never be mere bust- 
ling activity nor mere handwork as an end in itself. 
Religious educators have come to see that practically 


every lesson set for study in an Integrated Curriculum 
can be rendered more learnable to the pupil by giving 
him something to do with his hands as a share in the 
learning process, and such expressional work cannot be 
separated in thought or practice from the so-called 
technically instructional work. It takes both instruc- 
tion and expression in accord with it to make the teach- 
ing process a unity. In other words, everything that 
is done in Manual Training and in Manual Arts must 
have points of contact and be integrated with the les- 
son material if it is to be in very truth a vital part of the 
teaching process. If the group is engaged in studying 
missions or some other benevolent enterprise of the 
church, then it is natural, indeed inevitable where teach- 
ing is properly directed for the pupils in their Manual 
Training and Manual Arts work to wish to depict 
something connected with the life or culture of the par- 
ticular enterprise, or to construct some useful article 
for presentation to it. 

At the Thanksgiving season, when it is customary in 
so many churches to make a contribution in money to 
the orphanages, it would be the most natural thing in 
the world for the leaders in Religious Education to have 
individuals and groups in the Manual Training and 
Manual Arts work construct useful articles for the 
orphanages. Similar bonds of integration between the 
curriculum as study and the curriculum as expression 
should be the rule at all times, and this should take 
form and have meaning on the side of expression 
through Manual Training and Manual Arts work. 
There is no reason why this other form of expression 
with the hands in doing things is not as Christian a 
form of endeavor as the time-honored method of 
prayer and discussion, with which, however, we have 
become accustomed to associate the term Christian 
Endeavor almost exclusively. 

Church Schools with a vision are fast learning to 
appreciate the value of such means of expression for 


the children and young people and in their modern 
plants they are making considerable provision for Man- 
ual Training and Manual Arts. These types of work 
have been wonderfully effective agents in making study 
more interesting in the public school system and there 
is no reason why they should not prove equally effec- 
tive in the Church School. Our whole nature and 
every activity of our lives is capable of acting as a 
vehicle of some form of spiritual aspiration which has 
value for the development of Christian character, the 
hand no less than the head and the heart. 


While we shall have more to say about giving when 
we come to discuss the Integrated Budget, it may be 
well to note here that one of the most helpful ways 
of expressing interest and concern for Christian enter- 
prises and institutions is through the giving of money 
on which we have spent ourselves in making. Money 
is stored-up human life, and, whether or not the love 
of it may be the root of all evil, the giving of it is cer- 
tainly a well-spring of much spiritual good. The de- 
gree of willingness of the Christian child and youth, 
to say nothing of the Christian adult, to give money 
for the promotion of the Kingdom enterprises is a good 
barometer of the growth and development of that in- 
dividual in Christian experience and devotion. The 
magnitude of our giving determines the extent of our 

The Church School must, therefore, through its or- 
ganizational and curricular program, devote much time 
to training in giving, for which the General Educational 
Board will provide the material. The worship period 
in the departments or divisions should include a lesson 
exercise on giving. And in the Junior Church instruc- 
tion in giving should be part and parcel of the exercise, 


in which the representatives of the departments or di- 
visions bring forward their offerings. Of course, the 
causes which are to benefit by the sums given should 
be definitely integrated with the dates set for them in 
the calendar of the Church Year and with the en- 
deavors of the General Educational Board, to inform 
and educate the constituencies of the local Church 
Schools in the whole program of the whole church. 


The Christian home is the basic social and Christian 
institution. The first churches were family altars. 
The father can never be deposed from his primal place 
of importance as God's priest, and the mother in her 
home is our best teacher of religion. It is unfortunate 
that we have not integrated the home with the program 
of Religious Education by keeping it better informed 
of what the Church School is doing and how it can 
assist more generously. One of the chief ways in which 
it can aid are its outlets for expressional activities. 
Home duties should be exalted to the place of Chris- 
tian service. This can be done through suggestions on 
the part of the teacher for the younger children that 
emphasize how home duties may be treated as service 
rendered to and approved of God. In every depart- 
ment and division illustrations of ways in which home 
duties are Christian duties constantly present themselves 
and should always be utilized. We must so integrate 
our work of Religious Education that no cleavage shall 
take root in the mind of growing youth between Chris- 
tian duty on the one hand and home duty on the 

We shall have more to say along this line when we 
come to discuss the Department of the Home in its re- 
lation to the integrated program of Religious Education. 



Social service is of various types, which fall under 
such heads as organized or graded, personal, giving, 
seasonal, casual, and affiliated. The General Educa- 
tional Board should construct an integrated program 
of social service for the Church School, adjusting it 
to its own calendar of the Church Year, and should 
adapt it also to all the departments and divisions of 
the Church School. In the very nature of the case 
this program must be suggestive and regarded as source 
material, out of which the local Directors of Religious 
Education should construct their own modified pro- 
gram, fitting it in with the local situation. These 
programs of social service should include suggestions 
for helpful activities in the home, the home church, the 
community, the big world, and kindly relations with 
the lower orders of creation. It will be surprising how 
varied and rich this list of opportunities for service 
under these heads will grow, and there is no age in 
the Church School to which they will not be applicable. 1 


The highest privilege of the Christian life is the op- 
portunity afforded to lead others to the joys and satis- 
factions which it offers. As an expressional activity, 
evangelism takes the form of personal work, and every 
member of the Church School should cherish and hope- 
fully look forward to exercising the privilege of being 
instrumental in leading others into the Kingdom of 
Jesus Christ. This is true not only of teachers and 
officers of the Church School, but also of the individual 
pupils. The work of Religious Education will receive 
the final stamp of the divine approval and will exhibit 
the indisputable evidence of this approval, when those 

1 A very exceptional graded social service program may be found 
in Hutchins, Graded Social Service for the Sunday School. 


who are taking its curriculum turn out winners of souls 
for Jesus Christ. 


Athearn: The Church School. Chs. I, II, III. 
Coe: Education in Religion and Morals. Chs. XVIII, 

Wheeler: A Manual of Woodworking. 
Wells: Expert Endeavor. 

Harper: The New Layman for the New Time. Chs. IV, V. 

Chapter VI 


The church is a member of the community. We are 
willing to agree that it is the most important of the in- 
stitutions of the community, more essential even than 
the agencies of government or public education or busi- 
ness, because it motivates all these other organizations 
and supplies them with ideals and standards of ulti- 
mate judgment. Nevertheless, the church is, so to 
speak, a collective citizen of the community. Accord- 
ingly, its program must be integrated with and mortised 
into the community life, if we are to construct and 
operate a unified program of Christian teaching and 

Deeply imbedded in the thought of many Christian 
leaders is a conviction that the church should take a 
scolding attitude toward the community life and find 
fault with and criticize it, and that the policy of the 
church should be to keep itself unspotted from the 
world. This is a kind of modern asceticism and it can 
no more be justified in experience, in a correct under- 
standing of the teachings of Jesus, nor in the principles 
of psychology which should be basic in human life, 
than the more complete hermit asceticism of the Middle 
Ages. We look back upon, the withdrawal of the 
saints from contact with the world in those benighted 
days with a supercilious compassion and pity, but tak- 
ing the stand that the church should be in the world yet 
have no sympathetic concern for the world, is the same 
essential conviction that influenced the ancient ascetics 
in their anti-social conduct. It is to all intents and 



purposes a belated survival of the same fundamental 
spirit expressing itself in a different form. 

The false psychology on which this attitude is 
founded alone discredits it absolutely. The notion that 
fault-finding and criticism and scolding will correct 
the evils of any life or organization is contrary to the 
generally accepted ideas of the principles followed by 
the mind of man in its operations. We cannot live 
our lives in a vacuum, neither can we empty them of 
ideals and habits of expressing them. The only way by 
which life and social institutions can be morally, 
ethically, and spiritually regenerated is to substitute 
good for the evil we would eradicate. This is the 
method of Scripture which enjoins us to "overcome 
evil with good." 

Further, this scolding attitude is based on a false con- 
ception of Christianity. We are taught in the Christian 
revelation that God loved the world, as sorry and un- 
lovable a world surely as the one we know today. It 
is also true that Jesus taught that He had overcome 
the world and His disciples should also overcome it, 
by which He meant that He had stayed in the world 
and clung to the good in the face of the evil and that 
His disciples should do likewise. The temper of the 
Christian teaching is not ascetic, but cooperative; not 
critical, but sympathetic; not renunciatory, but ap- 
propriative; not denunciatory, but conciliative, toward 
the world and the whole life of man. If the gospel of 
Jesus Christ should prove unable to Christianize all 
the experiences of life and every institution that minis- 
ters to life, then it will fail to achieve the conquest of 
the human heart. 

This fault-finding attitude, too, is discredited by the 
experience of the church. Adherents can not be won 
to any cause through denouncing those who oppose 
it. Whenever the church has assumed the attitude of 
the scold toward life and its institutions, it has tended 
to turn those who were in the membership and re- 


mained into dogmatists and schismatics, but it has not 
been a time of growth with the church in any commend- 
able sense. The disposition to discredit the church on 
this very account is general on the part of the youth 
of the world. That is why gatherings of students 
and of young people independent of denominational 
control is one of the chief characteristics of this era. 
The church must reread her Master's life and teachings 
with a view to a less fault-finding interpretation of His 
will, plan, and purpose. When this is done, endorse- 
ment will be forthcoming of the opposite policy that 
the church should seek every opportunity to integrate 
and mortise its work into the work of the community, 
so as to furnish motive, inspiration, aspiration, ideals, 
and sufficiency of spiritual energy to enable men to 
live the Christian life as true servants of the whole 
realm of human experience. 

First it should be said in the way of general ap- 
proach to this problem of integration that the church 
should not enter into competition with the community 
in meeting any of the needs of life which are already 
taken care of by agencies at work. It should rather 
undertake to render these agencies, by supplying a back- 
ground of Christian motivation and ideals, increasingly 
better servants of the community's spiritual interests. 
Service rendered in the conduct of these agencies should 
be publicly recognized by the churches as definite Chris- 
tian service. Christian men and women so engaged 
should not be expected to render as large a service in 
their local churches. For example, here is a Play- 
ground and Recreation Association in a community 
which is officered by Christian men and women and 
supported by their contributions. The churches of the 
community should publicly recognize the distinctively 
Christian character of the service they are rendering, 
both personal and financial, and should willingly agree 
that less responsibility should be put upon their 
shoulders within the church as an organization. 


Certainly, the church as a collective citizen of the 
community will not undertake to compete, we say 
again, with agencies already in the community capable 
of serving it in that respect. It is a good thing in 
some communities, for example, for the church to 
establish and maintain a gymnasium. In other com- 
munities where the public school or some other com- 
munity agency may be performing this bit of social ser- 
vice, it would be unwise for the church to enter into 
competition with these agencies. Of course, should the 
community grow and the present agencies fail to keep 
pace with that growth, then the church would be jus- 
tified in entering this field for it would be entering not 
as a competitor, but to supplement the agencies already 
at work. Circumstances are conceivable, sad to say, 
when it becomes necessary for churches to enter into 
competition with agencies already in the field, because 
those agencies permit practices which undermine Chris- 
tian character, and their leaders have refused to heed 
the admonitions of the churches to correct these prac- 
tices. This has been particularly necessary with ref- 
erence to motion pictures. The better way, however, 
is to reeducate the agencies already at work, and no 
effort should be spared to effect such renovation. 

Also, the church should be exceedingly alert to lend 
a hand in setting up in the community life facilities 
which it has lacked for carrying on any type of work 
or of social service needed for a well-rounded com- 
munity program of Religious Education and spiritual 
uplift. If any such form of work new to the com- 
munity can be better done by an individual church or 
by the churches acting in their own name than by an 
outside community organization, then the churches 
should not hesitate to undertake this line of work and 
service, either on their own initiate as local churches 
or through denominational cooperative agencies. On 
the other hand, if the particular service that is con- 
templated can best be rendered by a separate com- 


munity organization, then the churches should do the 
work of public education and propaganda on behalf 
of the cause and when the time comes to create the 
necessary community organization, whole-heartedly 
urge their membership to join as citizens in the insti- 
tution and conduct of the work. 


The parish house is evidence of the recognition on 
the part of the churches that they owe other obligations 
to their constituency than teaching and preaching and 
occasions for worship. Parish houses are social, recre- 
ational, and amusement centers which are capable of 
most important service in the life of Christian people. 
Lectures, debates, forums and other intellectual fea- 
tures are sometimes added. Parish houses should not 
be operated without adequate supervision, nor should 
they be used as decoys to attract people into attending 
the preaching and teaching services of the church. They 
have legitimate claims on the church in their own right 
and do not need the specious argument of sectarian ad- 
vantage to be offered on their behalf. They should 
spring out of the native desire of the church to minister 
to the whole life of the whole constituency. These 
parish houses are even more necessary in small towns 
and rural churches than in the cities, because of the rela- 
tively greater poverty in the way of provision for recre- 
ation, amusement, and the social life. 

Whether a church is able to have a parish house or 
not, it should never excuse itself from taking a vital 
concern in the social life, and the amusement and recre- 
ation that goes on in the community. We have referred 
repeatedly to the Scouts and Campfires and compli- 
mented these organizations for wedding instruction to 
recreation. Place must be found for vital modes of 
expression for this same spirit and attitude in the or- 
ganization of the local church in its relationship to 


the whole life of its whole constituency. Integration 
and mortising of its social, recreational, and amuse- 
ment activities in with the corresponding community 
activities is one of the church's greatest opportunities 
for service. 


In undertaking to integrate its work of Religious 
Education with the community's activities, the Director 
of Religious Education in the local church or the per- 
son or agency that performs his functions should make 
a careful survey of the organizations, agencies, and 
forces already operating with a view to discover how 
the social, amusement, and recreational activities of his 
constituency can best be linked up with these agencies 
and organizations. It will also be his aim to ascer- 
tain if there are any lacks that may be supplied in a 
definite way by his particular church. Further, he 
should discover whether any of these agencies by re- 
motivation can be made serve the church's constituency 
more effectively. 

Having made and digested this survey and having 
decided the above questions, a brief should be drawn up 
and laid before the Committee on Education. They 
should construct a program of integration that shall 
provide for the fullest possible use of the agencies al- 
ready at work and, in addition, erect whatever other 
agencies and methods may be necessary by which a com- 
plete program of Christian social life, amusement, and 
recreation shall be provided for the Church School. 
This program will depend upon the size of the com- 
munity, the resources at the disposal of the church, and 
other local factors. That makes it impossible to sug- 
gest anything more here than the principles on which 
it should be constructed. 

It should be said, however, in respect to recreation, 
that the present tendency to professionalize athletics 


is most unfortunate. We need good amateur sports- 
manship rather than a win by fair means or foul 
spirit in athletics, and this is especially necessary when 
it comes to athletic contests between the members of 
different Church Schools. Athletics can be so con- 
ducted as to minister to the spiritual life or to make 
serious inroads upon it, according as the true principles 
of sportsmanship or the evils of professional competi- 
tion are given precedence in its organization and con- 

There is a strong feeling, therefore, on the part of 
Christian workers that the athletic policy to favor in 
the Church School should be "intra-church" rather 
than "inter-church." There is also a growing senti- 
ment in favor of mass athletics rather than for the 
highly organized games, such as football, baseball, and 
basketball. These are matters, however, that each local 
school must determine for itself, using local experience 
as a basis, through the method of the survey. 

Before leaving this subject, however, it remains to 
be said that the church should regard the privilege of 
providing wholesome social life, amusement, and recre- 
ation for the constituency of its Church School as one 
of its highest prerogatives and most promising avenues 
of service. 

A Community Roster will also include in addition 
to the organizations, agencies, and forces already at 
work, a list of anniversaries and state occasions, both 
those that are nation-wide in character and those that 
are local. The program drawn up for ministering to 
the social life and of providing amusement and recrea- 
tion will keep these events in mind and be thoroughly 
integrated with them, This will give rise to com- 
munity pageantry and the celebration of historic events. 
Experience teaches that these celebrations are wonder- 
fully effective means, not only of building up respect 
for one's home and country, but of developing the 
spiritual life of those who participate in them. 



We have repeatedly referred to the calendar of the 
Church Year, the docket of the causes that must re- 
ceive their fair share of attention. The local Com- 
mittee on Education will be in possession of the facts 
with reference to both the community and the gen- 
eral denominational life and program, and it will be 
necessary to take them all into account in the consider- 
ation and final adjustment of its own program to make 
it integrate with that of the community. However, 
it should be said that the relationship of a particular 
church to the other churches in its community and to 
the community life is more vital than its relationship 
to its own general church bodies. The organizations 
of the general denomination justify their right to ex- 
istence by enabling scattered local churches in coopera- 
tion with others of similiar ideals and purposes to do 
denominational things together which they cannot do 
independently. But the local church is first of all the 
servant of its own public, and the general denomina- 
tional program should not be allowed to excuse the 
local church from its obligations to serve first its own 
constituency in the community of which it is a collec- 
tive citizen. 

However, the general denomination is acting within 
its province to pass on to the local churches suggestive 
programs to be incorporated in the docket of events 
constituting the local calendar, and these suggestive pro- 
grams should be taken into account as far as possible 
in mortising in the work of the local church with the 
community life and agencies. 

That the denominations so understand their part 
is evident. As an illustration of such a calendar we 
quote here a suggestive program prepared by a general 
Board of Christian Education for its Young People's 
Department, on the understanding that the local Direc- 


tors of Religious Education, in cooperation with their 
Committees on Education, would schedule and integrate 
it in with the plans and activities of the community 
and the needs of the local church. 

Our 1926 Calendar 

For Christian Church Young People 

Theme: "The High Way." 

Aim: To begin the year seeking the 
High Way of Life. 
Activities: Kingdom Enlistment Week, 
Young People's Week, or co- 
operation of young people in 
some form of evangelistic effort. 
Sunday afternoon "sings" in in- 
stitutions of community or 
homes of shut-ins. 


Theme: "Youth and the Church." 

Aim: To discover the place of youth in 
the church and to challenge re- 
newed loyalty to the Church of 
Jesus Christ. 
Activities: Christian Endeavor Week, Janu- 
ary 31st to February 7th. Ar- 
range Young People's Room, or 
Corner of Church. Boy Scout 
Week. Church Schools of Mis- 
sions, Young people studying 
"Looking Ahead with Latin 
America," by High. Washing- 
ton's Birthday party, February 



Theme: "Youth Serving in a World." 
Aim: To see the great world task of 
the Church, and to claim our 
share in it. 

Activities: Church School of Missions, clos- 
ing with a pageant on March 
14th, with the foreign mission 
offering. A "Latin America 
Social" entertaining the Women's 
Missionary Society members. 
Near East topic in Christian En- 
deavor, March 28th. 


Theme: . "Youth Living in a Com- 

Aim: To view our own community, 
and decide how Jesus would have 
us to make it better. 
Activities: Easter, April 4th. 

Easter party for children of com- 
munity to discover young people 
for your church group. Dis- 
cover recreational needs of your 
community, and start movement 
to meet these needs. 


Theme: "Youth Sharing in the Home.*' 
Aim: To discover our own share in 
making home happier. 
Activities: Church School of Missions, 
young people studying "Peasant 
Pioneers" by Kenneth D. Miller. 
May 2nd, Offering for Depart- 
ment of Evangelism, with special 
pageant given by young people. 


May 9th, Mother's Day, fol- 
lowed by Mother and Daughter 
Week, including a Mother and 
Daughter Banquet. 
In appreciation of your own 
home, give an offering or make a 
gift to the Aged Ministers' Home 
this month. 


"Youth Helping Our Nation." 
To share in making America a 
Christian Nation. 
Church School of Missions clos- 
ing on June 14th. Flag Day, 
with the Home Mission Offer- 

June 15th, Magna Charta Day. 
College Commencements. 
Many Young People's Congress 

Welcome-Home to College Stu- 


Theme: "Youth in Training." 

Aim: To enlist at least 500 Christian 
Church young people for train- 
ing in Summer Schools and Camp 
Conferences. In the local church, 
to enlist volunteer young people 
to do special service to avoid the 
"summer slump." 
Activities: July 4th, Independence Day. 

Summer Schools for Christian 
Church Young Folks. 
International Camp Conferences. 
Conduct evening services during 
pastor's vacation. Out-of-door 




Sunday evening Vesper services, 
led by young people. Picnic in 
woods, or by lake, river or ocean. 


Theme: "Youth at Play." 

Aim: To learn how to play together to 
make new friends. To demon- 
strate the good times Christian 
young people have. 
Activities: Summer outing for city young- 
sters. Camping parties of church 
young people. Automobile party 
for older folk. Special Sunday 
evening out-of-door services. 
Visit other churches during your 
vacation to gain new ideas. 


Theme: "Youth in School." 

Aim: To continue along the "High 
Way" by further preparation for 
life's work in school, or through 
definite reading and study. 
Activities: Farewell party to young people 
going to college. Choice of 
courses of study in Sunday 
School for coming year (quarter 
begins in October) . Assume 
charge of plans for Rally Day, 
with cooperation of Superintend- 
ent and pastor. Organize Stay- 
to-Church Bands to help your 


Theme: "Youth and the Christian 


Aim: To deepen interest and strengthen 
loyalty to the work of the Chris- 
tian Church, through a better 
knowledge of her history, plans, 
and work. 

Activities: Study Christian Church every 
Sunday night of the month. 
Secure booklets from the Board 
of Christian Education. Ask the 
pastor to preach on the Chris- 
tian Church. Work toward your 
Young People's Congress goals. 
Our first Denominational Rally 
of Young People of the Chris- 
tian Church. Pray for it, come to 
it. Hallowe'en Party. Launch 
a campaign in your church for 
subscribers to Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, Journal of Christian 
Education, Christian Missionary, 
Christian Sun, and Christian 


Theme: "Youth and Stewardship." 
Aim: To study the great subject of 
Stewardship, and to face squarely 
our own responsibility to God. 
Activities: Study Class in Stewardship for 
young people. Purchase of books 
on Stewardship for your Church 
Library. Christian Education 
offering, November 7th. Armis- 
tice Day, November 11th. 
Thanksgiving Day, with special 
service and gifts to needy. En- 
rollment of young people as 



Theme: "Youth for Christ." 

Aim: At the Christmas Time, to see 
anew our relationship to Jesus 
Christ and to declare allegiance 
again to Him and His Church. 
Activities: Golden Rule Sunday, December 
7, Offering for Near East. Christ- 
mas pageant and carol singing. 
Christmas gift to Orphanage, 
mission points in this land, needy- 
ones of the community. Watch- 
night service, December 31. 

A Slogan for 1926 

"Good, better, best, 
Never let us rest, 
Till we make our good better 
And our better best." 


The home and the public school must, of course, be 
integrated with the community program and interested 
in cooperating with it to the fullest extent feasible. 
They are institutions of such importance to the com- 
munity that special mention should be made of taking 
them into our confidence. The same children are in 
the homes of the community, in the public schools, and 
in the Church Schools, and any program of integra- 
tion with the community's activities must constantly 
take into account all harmonious inter-lockings possible 
with these two institutions. Here, again, the local sit- 
uation is a factor of such determining influence that de- 
tailed suggestions would be out of place. The right 
of the church to claim time to teach religion to the chil- 
dren during public school hours must be clearly recog- 


nized and freely conceded by the public school authori- 
ties, and public school teachers should so far as prac- 
ticable be utilized as teachers in all sessions of the 
Church School. We shall recur again to this matter 
when we discuss the Department of the Home. 


Squires: A Parish Program of Religious Education. Ch. XIV. 

Bower: A Survey of Religious Education in the Local 
Church. Ch. II. 

Squires: The Week Day Church School. Chs. II, III, IV. 

Hutchins: Graded Social Service for the Sunday School. 

Cope: The Week Day Church School. 

Cope: Week Day Religious Education. 

Lotz: Current Week Day Religious Education. 

Knapp: The Community Daily Vacation Bible School. 

Lowell: Floor Plans for Community Buildings. 

Hauser: Latent Religious Resources in Public School Edu- 

Butterfield: A Christian Program for the Rural Commun- 
ity. Chs. I, V. 
Galpin: Empty Churches. 

Chapter VII 


Two of the great denominational publishing houses, 
The Methodist Book Concern (or The Abingdon 
Press) and The American Baptist Publication Society 
(or The Judson Press) recently rounded out a full 
century of service. It was noticeable that in telling the 
story of their one hundred years of achievement, their 
managers in both instances laid great stress on their 
business success. I think it is an admitted fact that 
the denominational publishing houses have almost with- 
out exception regarded themselves as business enterprises 
and other lines of service were looked upon by them 
as secondary and subservient to this major interest or 

It is an excellent thing for men of business ability 
to be willing, for a modest stated salary, to consecrate 
their business acumen to the service of the Church and 
the Kingdom. The denominational publishing houses 
have been fortunate in attracting into their service just 
such talented and consecrated business managers. As 
a consequence they have grown and prospered. 

It would be untrue to the facts, however, not to ad- 
mit that all through their history the denominational 
publishing houses have acted graciously toward the 
general enterprises of their constituent churches. They 
have been particularly interested in church extension 
and in the circulation of literature of propaganda and 
promotion. They should be praised for these generous 

On the other hand, it must also be stated that the 


denominational publishing houses in not a few instances 
have sacrificed still fuller participation in the promo- 
tion of the life and program of the churches on the altar 
of financial success. Publishing projects of decided ad- 
vantage have been tabled oftentimes by the directors of 
these splendid Christian enterprises on the ground that 
they would not pay for themselves. Sometimes, too, 
matters of great import have been pigeon-holed, not on 
the ground that they would not ultimately pay, but 
because the immediate money returns would not justify 
the undertaking. Conservatism is characteristic of suc- 
cessful business enterprises. Such enterprises tend to 
look with suspicion and distrust upon innovations. 
The tried and the tested are safe business risks and 
"safety first" is a prime maxim in business management. 

However, the General Educational Board and the 
publishing houses are beginning to see their partnership 
relations in a different light and agree that they must 
integrate their programs much more closely. Profit 
must be abandoned as the aim of denominational pub- 
lishing, and service must be accepted as the primary 
purpose justifying the establishment of these religious 
business concerns. The churches appreciate the enor- 
mous amount of work that has been done by their pub- 
lishing houses, running into millions of dollars an- 
nually. In the interest of a higher form of success and 
even better service from these houses, the integra- 
tion of their programs with those of the General Edu- 
cational Board is a primary need at this time. 


An integrated program assumes that the General 
Educational Board is responsible for the selection, edit- 
ing, and other duties connected with the preparation 
of instructional and educational literature of the de- 
nomination. It also proceeds on the understanding 


that the Board of Publishing has coordinate responsi- 
bility in procuring, offering for sale, and publishing, or 
otherwise providing this same literature for the con- 
venience of its constituencies. The Board of Publish- 
ing, in addition, has the responsibility of handling all 
kinds of supplies for Church Schools, and the further 
duty of publishing religious journals of a general char- 
acter besides the departmental publications of the other 
constituent boards of the denominational General Con- 

The first step to be taken toward the integration of 
the work of the Board of Publishing with that of the 
General Educational Board is the recognition of the 
validity of the general principle that the editing of all 
Church School literature should be the prerogative of 
the General Educational Board, together with the corol- 
lary principle that the secretaries of the General Educa- 
tional Board should combine in themselves administra- 
tive, field, and editorial functions. In this way the 
curriculum of Religious Education will be made to 
respond directly and sympathetically to the needs of 
the denomination as administrative and field work shall 
reveal them. The Board of Christian Education of 
the Christian Church, for example, has entered into 
exactly this arrangement with its Board of Publishing, 
and for more than three years now a very happy uni- 
fication and spirit of harmony has prevailed in the work 
of these two boards. The consequence is that the Re- 
ligious Education literature of the church has become 
definitely improved. 

It is the policy now of practically all the denomina- 
tions to issue a considerable body of tract literature, 
dealing with the history and achievements of the de- 
nomination, as well as general propaganda. In an 
integrated program, the more effective means used in 
teaching a whole people the history and achievements 
of their denomination is to weave these items as illus- 
trative material in with the lesson treatment of the cur- 


riculum laid out for the Church Schools. In this 
way, the doctrines of the church, its ideals, and pro- 
grams in the realm of stewardship, evangelism, social 
service, missions, recreation, amusement, the social life, 
and Christian Education in the more technical sense, 
can be readily incorporated and integrated with the in- 
structional program of the denomination. This 
method is far more effective than the time-honored 
tractarian approach to these same ends. 

As a definite illustration, we will suppose that the 
Junior Department of the Church School is studying 
the life of the great Christian heroes. The curriculum 
editors will accept the inviting opportunity to place 
side by side with the Biblical heroes the leaders of the 
denomination who in their day exemplified the same 
fine spirit of heroism. On another occasion, the Inter- 
mediate Department will be studying the missionary 
activities of Paul. The editors of the Integrated Pro- 
gram will accept this occasion to speak of the denomi- 
national missionaries. At still another time, the Senior 
Department will be studying the education and prepara- 
tion of Moses or the establishment of the schools of 
the prophets by Samuel. In either case the editors will 
accept this real avenue of approach to Leadership Train- 
ing and will set forth in their lesson treatments, the 
opportunities afforded by the denominational colleges, 
creating, first, an aspiration on the part of the youth of 
the church for such training and, secondly, for securing 
it in the denominational institutions. In this connection 
of course and on many other occasions where the ref- 
erence is apt, the Board of Publishing will receive due 
recognition in the lesson materials as the servant of the 
church and of the educational interests of the Kingdom. 

It must not be understood, however, that the Pro- 
gram of Integration will do away entirely with the pro- 
priety or the necessity of issuing pamphlet literature. 
Indeed, the Board itself will find it convenient to issue 
special pamphlets dealing with methods, aims, objec- 


tives, and appeals, and so will the other boards of the 
denomination, but it should clearly be recognized that 
these pamphlets are limited in the scope of their service 
and that the best way of educating a whole people in 
the whole program of the whole church will be through 
the curriculum of the Church Schools, making use of 
the principle of integration in the preparation of this 

The literature pertaining to Religious Education will 
be general and special. The general literature will likely 
yield a profit to the publishing house and eventually the 
special literature likewise should be made to yield a 
profit; but the matter of profit should never be a de- 
termining factor in arriving at a decision to publish. 
One of the chief arguments used against Closely Graded 
Lessons was the cost of their production. Some of the 
smaller denominations are pleading the cost of the pub- 
lication of Group Graded Lessons as a good and suffi- 
cient reason for continuing the Uniform Lessons only. 
Special literature will be issued by the Board of Pub- 
lishing in the form of magazines or other periodical 
literature and books. Every General Educational Board 
will need a general magazine through which the entire 
integrated educational program of the church may re- 
ceive the publicity required for the leadership of the 
church to administer it as a unified whole. Such an 
educational magazine should also undertake, in special 
issues, to give due emphasis in turn to the various con- 
stituent items of a well-rounded curriculum of Re- 
ligious Education. One such journal, for example, 
brought out a special number of illustrating for the 
leaders how Christian Endeavor should be integrated 
department by department in the Church School with 
the general educational program and the ways it could 
be made to serve the educational interests of the local 
Church Schools best. Similiarly, from time to time it 
has produced special numbers dealing with Scouting, 
Colleges of the Denomination, The General Problem 


of the Curriculum, Life-Work and Service, the Lay- 
men in the Program of Religious Education, Business 
and Christian Principles, The Minister, the Director 
of Religious Education, etc. There have also been sea- 
sonal numbers, of course, of this same general organ 
of the Board of Christian Education. It must be ad- 
mitted, however, that the special number feature can be 
overdone. A balanced ration ultimately will give the 
best results, each issue paying tribute to a unified and 
integrated program of Religious Education by its treat- 
ment of varied themes, rather than by devoting all its 
space to a single cause. An important feature of such 
a general organ will be the publication of "Programs 
of Things To Do" for each department of the Church 
School, together with a question page and book re- 
views. All that the International Journal of Religious 
Education undertakes to do for the whole Christian con- 
stituency of the nation, such a journal should do for 
its particular denomination, and it should do more. 
For the International Journal has no integrated program 
to recommend though it is working in that direction. 

The papers that are edited or provided by the Gen- 
eral Educational Board for the Church Schools offer a 
splendid medium of publicity for suggestions of inter- 
department extension work in the cause of integration. 
They should furnish the children and youth of the 
Church Schools, in particular with fascinating stories of 
human interest and adventure, together with practical 
suggestions for doing things — always so edited or se- 
lected that they gear in at some points with the inte- 
grated program of Christian life and service that is in 


The General Educational Board must select suitable 
books or arrange to have them written and the Board 
of Publishing must stock the books selected and pub- 


lish those that have been written by the secretaries of 
the General Educational Board or by other leaders in 
the denomination. Ordinarily, except in the larger de- 
nominations, publication will entail a loss upon the 
Board of Publishing, but there can be no question that 
the standing of this loss is an absolute necessity. De- 
nominational Boards of Publishing must consent to 
undertake these losing book ventures or the denomi- 
national morale will suffer. Authoritative books on 
the history and achievements of the denomination, 
biographies of distinguished leaders of the denomina- 
tion, treatises setting forth the principles and specialized 
viewpoints of the denomination, in the very nature of 
the case, cannot find a publisher among the general pro- 
ducers of books. Those who are capable of writing 
such books should not also be taxed, even if they are 
able to bear the expense, with any part of the cost that 
the publication of their books will entail. Here is a 
field of service which the Board of Publishing must 
enter prepared to lose money. At the same time, the 
General Educational Board must never lose sight of the 
fact that one of its most essential duties is to take steps 
to see that satisfactory books get written. 

Reference has already been made to Reading Courses. 
The General Educational Board should select lists of 
books appropriate for pupils, teachers, and leaders in all 
divisions and departments of the Church School, not 
neglecting the reading of the ministry of the church. 
Of course, these lists will include particularly the writ- 
ings of the authors and leaders of church, so far as these 
are available, but the whole literary wealth of the world 
should be called upon in making these Reading Courses 
as valuable, as helpful, and as inspirational as possible. 
The Boards of Publishing will provide these books and 
will assist in their sale and use in the church. 

The General Educational Board will also find an 
open door of service in the maintenance of traveling 
libraries and books to loan. A relatively small sum in- 


vested in this way will do a large amount of good in 
quickening the ideals and modernizing the methods of 
workers in local Church Schools, especially in the 
weaker churches. Ministers, of course, are meant to be 
included in this list of workers. 

A word, too, should be said about song books. Even 
a cursory examination of the song books used in Church 
Schools, churches, and other services of worship will 
show the necessity of getting the ideals of Religious 
Education integrated with and incorporated into our 
music books. Many of our songs, as far as the music 
is concerned, are jazz and they undermine the spiritual 
life. So far as the words are concerned, some of them 
are pagan, while a vast number give expression to out- 
worn theological concepts and thought-categories. The 
General Educational Board should call into its counsel 
those who are capable of judging songs from the stand- 
point of the influence of music on character, and then 
it should include only songs with words that integrate 
and harmonize with the principles, ideals, aims, and ob- 
jectives of a consistent program of Religious Education. 
Certain to be included in such books are the songs that 
emphasize the principles of Divine Fatherhood, of 
Christian Brotherhood, of Social Service, of Home and 
Foreign Missions, of Christian Stewardship, of Personal 
Evangelism, of Christian Nurture, of Christian Aspira- 
tion, of Personal Experience of God, of Christian Citi- 
zenship, of the Christian Home, of Worship, and the 
other great kindred themes of the Christian way and 
life. The editorial work of selection in the production 
of song books must not be left with Publishing Boards 
or persons who do not have the viewpoint of Religious 
Education in the service of Christian character develop- 
ment. The General Educational Board must insist 
upon the priority of its right to select or edit or other- 
wise provide the subject matter of the song books of 
the church, and the Board of Publishing should make 
publishing arrangements satisfactory to the General 


Educational Board in accordance with its bounden duty 
to perform this service for the Kingdom. 


The Board of Publishing has always accepted re- 
sponsibility for the publication of denominational news- 
papers. In fact, these publishing houses were started 
early in the nineteenth century for the purpose, among 
others, of producing such denominational organs. The 
first of these denominational newspapers, the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, of which the first number was pub- 
lished in Portsmouth, N. H., September, 1808, by Elias 
Smith, has enjoyed a continuous existence until this 
day. It is now published in Dayton, Ohio, by the 
Christian Publishing Association, with Rev. Alva M. 
Kerr, D. D., as editor-in-chief. All through the more 
than one hundred years of existence of these various de- 
nominational newspapers, the closest affiliation has been 
the rule between them and the Boards of Publishing. 
The losses sustained in their publication have been 
borne by the Boards of Publishing. There has not 
been, however, all the integration and interplay possi- 
ble by any means, between the denominational news- 
papers and the educational programs of the churches 
which would be conducive to the welfare and prosperity 
of the Christian life of the people. These denomina- 
tional newspapers have sunk in many cases into mere 
sheets of promotion and propaganda for various enter- 
prises sponsored by the denomination. In recent years, 
also, outside interests, interdenominational or non-de- 
nominational in character, have confiscated space whole- 
sale in these denominational newspapers as the most ef- 
fective and insinuating method of approach open to 
them to the conscience and the pocketbook of the Chris- 
tian public. 

The General Educational Board, the Board of Pub- 
lishing and the editors of these denominational news- 


papers, should confer together continually and inau- 
gurate methods of integrating their approaches and ap- 
peals to people with the full educational program in 
force so as to exert unified impact on that program. 
Generally speaking, the denominational newspapers 
should contain inspiration, information, and aspiration 
of the entire constituency, stretching from life in the 
home, the church and community, up to life in the uni- 
versities and other institutions of higher learning which 
serve the interests of the denomination. 


Athcarn: The Church School. Pp. 64-67 and passim. 
Brown: The Church in America. Chs. X, XI, XII. 
Betts: How to Teach Religion. Ch. VIII. 
Betts: The Curriculum of Religious Education. Pp. 49 If. 

Chapter VIII 


Business operates according to a careful system of 
estimated costs. Provision is made for inventories, and 
close check-ups. But the administration of financing the 
Kingdom has been wasteful, haphazard, chaotic. Spasm 
rather than system has been said to characterize the 
efforts of the church to secure the funds necessary for 
financing its enterprises. 

Not only do business houses operate according to 
cost systems, but the Department of Production ad- 
ministers these cost systems so that there is unity and 
coherence in the conduct of the enterprise. One of the 
primal weaknesses of the Church School, which it shares 
with the other enterprises of the church, is the failure 
to coordinate and unify the methods of securing funds 
and disbursing them for its own necessary expenses and 
for the causes which the denomination would have it 

Certain general principles are fundamental to the 
clarifying of this situation. Unless they are accepted 
and adhered to, it is likely that the church will con- 
tinue to be driven to and fro by the contrary winds 
of competitive appeals for support of special institu- 
tions and causes rather than enjoy a calm voyage on 
the sea of an orderly administration of all the enter- 
prises of the Kingdom. 

These principles are: 

A business like financial administration of the church 
calls for a well distributed and well integrated budget. 
It must allow the fact full weight that the same 



people, whether the church finances its enterprises on a 
budget system or by special appeals, in the final analysis, 
must supply all the various funds for the conduct of the 

The overhead cost of administering a budget can be 
greatly reduced under a single, integrated financial pro- 
gram, in contrast with one of inter-board competition 
and special appeal. 

Under the present system, local churches and local 
Church Schools are not educated to support the enter- 
prises of the church proportionately. One church, for 
example, will be intensely interested in foreign missions, 
another in home missions, another in the support of 
orphanage work, a fourth in Religious Education, a 
fifth in the support of interdenominational enterprises, 
and a sixth in a community social service program. 
A long list of causes present eloquent appeals to local 
leaders who act from impulse rather than from an in- 
telligent concern to determine what is necessary for 
an adequate support of the entire denominational life. 

The budget principle is the right way to raise funds 
for the general denominational purposes and boards as 
well as for local churches and Church Schools. 

The Church School should be supported as a cur- 
rent expense of the local church and should not be 
expected to support itself. 

Every member of the congregation, whether a mem- 
ber of the church as such or not, should participate in 
the financial plans and subscribe to the support of 
the enterprises fostered by the local church. 

The Biblical teaching as to giving should be strictly 
adhered to, with the tithe as a minimum, and special 
offerings over and above the tithe which should be 
regarded as the special privilege of generous hearts, with 
systematic installments as the method of payment. 

Experience proves that the Every-Member Canvass 
and the Church Honor Day, together with the Envelope 
System of payment, are the most effective ways of se- 


curing funds for the support of the Kingdom and its 

Keeping these principles in mind, the Budget Com- 
mittee must include in the sum total of its estimates, a 
proper share in the maintenance cost of the general de- 
nominational, interdenominational, non-denomina- 
tional community, and local church causes and enter- 
prises. It should also remember that an integrated 
budget ought not to depend upon securing the necessary 
funds for financing the Kingdom merely through ap- 
peals for benevolence, but that it must likewise make 
use of the educational method and add to it the spirit 
of worship. In other words, the integrated budget 
depends for its success upon education, worship, and 
expression — the three necessary divisions of a well- 
rounded program of Religious Education. 


It is the privilege and also the duty of executives of 
the general denominational organization to consider the 
enterprises, causes, and needs of the whole church and 
draw up a balanced budget for their support. Certain 
denominational enterprises, however, will resist the in- 
clusion of their work in the budgeting of the denomi- 
national financial appeal. They have, we will say, had 
long experience in the field of general denominational 
benevolence and have built up for themselves a clientele 
and also a prestige, which, in the nature of the case, 
makes it hard for them to merge their claims for support 
with enterprises that have been less fortunate in the 
general scramble of the boards for funds. The leaders 
who take this attitude do not seem to be aware that 
they are basing their contention on the Darwinian prin- 
ciple of the survival of the fittest — fittest being the 
selfishly strongest in open competition rather than un- 
selfishly generous in the use of the Christian method of 
the stronger helping the weaker. 


Other denominational causes have such an easy access 
to the hearts of people because of the more patent proofs 
to which they can point of the service they render that 
they, too, will be unwilling to have their claims for 
support included in a unified financial budget. Chief 
among such enterprises will be the orphanages of the 
church and the homes for the aged ministers and mis- 
sionaries. There is no appeal so strong to the 
benevolently inclined human heart as the appeal of the 
helpless child bereft of its parents. An appeal for an 
institution that offers home and opportunity to such 
children never fails to strike a responsive chord in the 
hearts of real men and women. And the same is true 
of those veteran soldiers of the Cross who have served 
the church through the years on a pittance and who 
have come to the eventide of life, stricken in body and 
in purse. The man who will not give for an Or- 
phanage or a Home for Aged Ministers shows that there 
is something vital lacking in his Christian character. 
Managers of these enterprises of the church may be 
counted upon to resist their inclusion in the church's 

Then there are certain interdenominational causes 
which have been highly successful in the general scram- 
ble for funds that would also wish to preserve for 
themselves the right of direct appeal to local churches 
and special offerings through high pressure methods on 
a nation-wide scale. These enterprises, too, will re- 
sist an attempt to include them in the budgets of the 
various denominations. 

The mere mention of these difficulties is sufficient to 
indicate how tactful the budget-makers must be in go- 
ing about the solution of their problems. Nevertheless, 
the welfare and the progress of the Kingdom of Jesus 
Christ should have right of way over any obstacles or 
interests that may oppose the undertakings of the 
measures best calculated to promote that Kingdom. 
The churches must budget their finances and they must 


begin doing so at the top, that is to say, with the 
funds required by the denominational boards, and not 
in the local church as so many of these boards have for 
some time been advocating. Very naturally, these 
boards are willing and even insistent that the local 
churches adopt the budget plan, provided the particular 
board is included in that budget for what it regards as 
a liberal amount. But a budget, to be effective, 
efficient, and so well distributed as to cover the whole 
work of the whole church, must begin with a budget 
of the denomination's general enterprises, and this can 
not be done, of course, unless such a budget has been 
agreed upon by the boards of the General Convention. 

What, therefore, is required of these boards is a 
careful canvass of their probable expenses for main- 
tenance and promotion for the year. Then a Budget 
Commission, invested with the power of readjustment, 
should consider these several amounts. The Budget 
Commission should then report to the General Board 
of the General Convention, which should complete 
the work of adjustment and set the final sums. In this 
way, every general enterprise that is worthy will be 
properly cared for in due relationship to the others, 
and no cause will suffer a reduced income unless all the 
causes suffer together. The General Educational Board, 
along with all the other boards, would submit its bud- 
get and secure its appropriations. The general inter- 
denominational enterprises should also be included in 
the general church budget, and then forbidden to make 
direct appeals to local churches and Church Schools. 

Having adopted the general church budget, the Bud- 
get Commission would carefully consider what portion 
of it each Regional Convention, each local Conference, 
and each local church should be expected to contribute, 
basing this estimate on several factors, such as salary 
paid the pastor, value of church property, membership, 
and previous record for giving. These apportionments 
would not be levied as assessments, but would be passed 


on to these several cooperative units in the denomina- 
tional organization, with the request that they approve 
these quotas for the general causes of the denomination. 
Each Regional Convention might decide to add some- 
thing to its budget for purposes peculiar to that par- 
ticular section of the church and pass the same on down 
to its constituent Conferences. Likewise, the Con- 
ferences in particular instances might find it necessary 
to add something to the quotas asked of them by the 
General Convention and the Regional Convention, in 
order to care for peculiar conditions in their own ter- 
ritory, passing these increases on finally to the local 

The Budget Commission of the General Convention 
would need one or more financial officers, according to 
the size of the denomination, for the collection and 
administration of the funds under the budget, per- 
centaging to the various boards the amounts properly 
accruing to them. The local churches would remit 
through the Conference, the Regional Convention, or 
directly to the Department of Finance of the General 
Convention, according to the denominational plan or 
organization or custom. Perhaps eventually the funds 
destined for each organizational unit will be sent to 
them directly from local churches, monthly or quarterly. 
Designated gifts except as specified in the concluding 
paragraph of this chapter should be discouraged, but 
in the event they are made they should of course go 
to the cause named, but counted against its percentage 
of the total budget. 


In addition to the quota, apportionment, or allot- 
ment that may have been passed on to it from the 
General Convention, the Regional Convention, and the 
Conference of which it is a member, the local church 


would find itself confronted with the necessity of aid- 
ing in the support of certain other causes. For example, 
every community carries on enterprises which are sup- 
ported through interdenominational cooperation. Then 
there are the current expenses of the church, and calls 
for local benevolence. In addition, the non-denomina- 
t'onal enterprises that must look to Christians for sup- 
port must deal with the local church. The local 
church may find it necessary to call upon its member- 
ship to withhold support from non-denominational 
causes, except as provided in the church budget. This 
is the final method open to the church by which to 
exercise control over these enterprises. They some- 
times flout the local church and insist on dealing with 
its members as individuals and oftentimes are successful 
in getting far more liberal support than they are 
entitled to, or than the members can afford to provide 
them, if they are to meet the other legitimate and nec- 
essary claims upon their generosity. 

Each local church will need a Budget Committee 
or a Financial Board to give careful consideration to 
the requests for financial aid that come to it from 
general denominational sources, local calls, and for 
current expenses. In answer to these several appeals 
for support, this Committee will make up a budget 
which it will submit to the church for ratification. It 
will then proceed to raise and disburse this budget on 
the percentage agreed, paying out these funds to this and 
that official acording to the policy of the local church 
and of the denomination. 

Every organization or enterprise in a local church 
that expects the financial support of the church or its 
membership should be required to submit its budget 
to this Budget Committee or Financial Board, which 
should have the right to approve, amend, or eliminate 
the same from the budget they will later submit to the 
entire church for final consideration. 



We have already spoken of the Every-Member Can- 
vass, the Church Honor Day, and the Envelope System 
of payment. Some are inclined to prefer the Every- 
Member Canvass to the Church Honor Day, and vice 
versa. There is nothing fixed and final about either 
of these methods, and perhaps both should be employed 
in order to secure the best results. 

Some insist on the duplex or bi-pocket envelopes, 
with two treasurers, one for benevolences and one for 
current expenses. Here, again, there is nothing set and 
unchangeable. Most churches are inclined to incor- 
porate the duplex idea in principle into their financial 
system, but to carry the sums given for benevolence and 
current expenses in a single treasurer's book. If the 
church operates under a budget and percentages its 
income to the different items in the budget, there is 
certainly nothing to be gained by having two treas- 

Care should be taken, as we have already said, that 
every member of the parish or congregation, from the 
new-born babe to the oldest adult, should be enlisted 
in the financial support of the church and its enter- 
prises. It is well that the children, whether they can 
fully understand what they are doing or not, sub- 
scribe to the united budget, both for current expenses 
and for benevolences. In this way we can have a 
program of genuine educational training in Christian 
stewardship in full swing. 

The General Educational Board will have tremen- 
dous responsibility in devising a campaign of education 
that shall make the budget of the general denomination, 
as well as of the local church, succeed. This board 
naturally will keep in mind the requirements of the bud- 
get and also the calendar of the Church Year in the 
editing of the material set for study in the Sunday and 
week day sessions of the Church Schools. It will also 



integrate the papers of an educational character which 
it publishes for circulation in the Church Schools, with 
the support of the budget by including material in 
praise and advocacy of generosity along with the 
materials for other instruction which these papers aim 
to inculcate. This board will also keep the denomina- 
tional newspapers in harmonious accord with the bud- 
get by keeping them hard at promotion work in behalf 
of its calls and on plans for the education of the whole 
people for their support. In addition, it will have its 
own general denominational magazine or departmental 
journal through which to keep the leaders of the church 
everywhere informed in detail of plans and methods 
by which the funds necessary for the support of the 
denominational enterprises may be obtained. Finally, 
it will prepare special financial propaganda programs 
and pamphlets to be placed directly in the hands of the 
leaders of the local Church Schools by divisions and 

On the local Church School rests the fate of the 
denominational budget. There it will either gloriously 
succeed, or ignominiously fail. And fail it will unless 
truly educational methods are employed in focusing the 
attention of the pupils of the Church School on the 
enterprises to be supported. It will not be sufficient 
for a local church to prepare an imposing budget based 
upon a liberal percentage of increase over its total 
quotas. No system of finance will take care of itself. 
The price of success is unceasing vigilance after the bud- 
get is submitted, to insure its payment promptly and 
cheerfully through the use of educational methods, 
which must include instruction not only elsewhere but 
also in worship. A situation must be created in which 
the necessary funds will be readily forthcoming as the 
natural expression of the people's interest in the King- 
dom and its enterprises. 

The worship period in the different divisions or 
departments offers a splendid opportunity to build up 


sentiment in favor of subscribing generously and pay- 
ing these subscriptions to the budget promptly, and for 
education generally in regard to the general enterprises 
of the denomination. The materials for this purpose 
should be supplied by the General Educational Board 
and should be integrated Sunday by Sunday with the 
program of the Church Year. It is true that all the 
money that is given through the envelope system for 
the budget on a particular day or during a particular 
period will not be set aside for the particular enterprise 
that is, according to the calendar of the Church Year, 
the subject of story, illustrated lecture, exhortation, or 
otherwise in the various departments or divisions, or 
in the case of the smaller schools, in the whole Church 
School. But no injustice will be done to any cause 
through this method of associated giving, because, on 
these various occasions scattered over the whole year, 
this method will provide amply and properly for the 
full presentation of each and every cause. Following 
a presentation of the church enterprise in question 
appropriate to the department, division, or the entire 
Church School, as the case may be, the envelopes will 
be received in connection with an impressive exercise 
in emulation of giving. This will apply to the Chil- 
dren's Division particularly and may be useful also in 
the Young People's and Adult Divisions. In these it 
would be better for the envelopes to be retained until 
the regular preaching service and individually placed on 
the offering plates. The children, provided that they 
have a Junior Church, could place their offerings by 
classes or departments on a table at the front, in 
connection with another symbolic giving exercise. 

Pupils in the Young People's Division and in the 
Adult Division of the Church School will be 
thoroughly able to understand without any form of 
prompting that the money which they give through 
envelopes at the regular preaching service will go for 
the support of the enterprises presented to them in the 


worship periods of their respective departments or 

It may be desirable in the judgment of the local 
Financial Board or Budget Committee to provide for 
occasional special offerings in the Church School. 
There is no objection to this practice, provided the 
educational method is used in preparing for these of- 
ferings, and the operation of the regular budget will 
suffer no interference from these special calls. 

Also, the regular preaching service of the church 
should lend its aid in the creation of sentiment in favor 
of the budget and the support of the enterprises of the 
church by that method. This should not be done by 
direct appeal for offerings, except in rare instances, but 
by the citation of concrete illustrations of the work 
carried on and expositions of how general Christian 
principles apply to the special causes that have been 
included in the budget. Such a policy on the part of 
the minister will wonderfully strengthen sentiment in 
favor of the budget and make the financial support of 
the Kingdom easier. It should also be noted that no 
special offering should ever be taken, either in the 
church or in the Church School, outside the budget 
without the approval of the Budget Committee or 
Financial Board of the local church. 


Nothing that has been advocated in this discussion 
of an Integrated Budget should be understood as in 
any way favoring the discontinuance of the plan of 
approaching individuals of wealth and liberal disposi- 
tion for large gifts to the endowment funds of church 
enterprises, for their expansion, and for emergency work. 
While it is the duty of the churches to create a con- 
sistent and systematic financial system based upon the 
average income of the majority of its members, it would 
be a calamity if this system were to make it appear 


undesirable that the few who are capable of so doing 
should not have the privilege of making liberal gifts 
outside the budget, as an expression of their interest in 
and love for the Kingdom and its enterprises. 


McGarrah: A Modern Church Program. 
McGarrah: Modern Church Finance. 

Crawford: The Call to Christian Stewardship. Chs. I, II. 

Tremaine: Church Efficiency. 

Day: Business Methods For the Clergy. 

Chapter IX 


In any line of human endeavor we can never rise 
higher than the stand taken by our leadership. This 
means that a major source of trouble in Religious 
Education is the poor quality of our leadership. There 
is small doubt that the discreditable situation revealed 
in the Indiana Survey is typical of the entire nation. 
But it is equally sure that the church will be able to 
solve this problem when once it has applied its full 
resources to its solution. 

It should be said, however, in the way of approach 
to this problem, that trained leadership involves far 
more than intellectual equipment on the part of those 
who are to teach or otherwise have personal contact 
with the educational program of the church. In fact, 
intellectual equipment ranks seventh in point of impor- 
tance in a list of ten qualities which the teacher should 
possess, acording to the judgment of the public school 
systems of fifty-four cities. The qualities listed in Kim- 
ball's A Survey of Teacher Rating in the United States 
in accordance with their importance are as follows: 
technic, personality, professional attitude, management, 
professional growth, social attitude, scholarship, pupil 
reaction, health, and results as shown by tests. Boyce, 
however, in his Methods of Measuring Teachers* 
Efficiency, lists five major sets of qualities as follows: 
personal equipment, social and professional equipment, 
school management, technic of teaching, and results. 
Rugg's Man-to-Man Self-Rating Scale lists six qual- 
ities called for in the teacher as follows: religious qual- 



ities, skill in teaching, skill in managing, team work 
qualities, qualities of growth, and personal and social 

Leadership Training, therefore, must give attention 
to more than the intellectual capacity and scholarship 
of those who are to teach. The proper standard in 
judging all teaching is the result obtained in the char- 
acter development of the pupils, and the possession of 
these personal, social, and spiritual qualities by the 
teacher is a tremendous factor in achieving that kind of 
result. That is why the Sunday School work has been 
carried on with such good success, despite the poor edu- 
cational equipment of those who taught. These workers 
have obtained good results by the impact of their charac- 
ters, and have possessed other essential qualities of the 
good teacher which in a measure overcame their lack of 
technical and professional training. This, however, 
does not excuse us from endeavoring to raise the stand- 
ard to which our leaders in Religious Education must 
measure up until they shall bear comparison technically 
and professionally, with public school teachers. This 
must not be done, however, at the expense of those finer 
qualities of the soul which are the crown and glory as 
well as the guarantee of good success in the leaders who 
devote themselves whole-heartedly to the work of 
Religious Education. 


There are several methods of Leadership Training 
in use, and all of them are good. In the Community 
School of Leadership Training, the denominations 
unite for the cooperative conduct of the work. There 
is also the pure community school — in theory at least. 
Then, there is the denominational institute supported 
by a group of contiguous churches belonging to the 
same Church body. Summer schools and conferences of 
Leadership Training are held, conducted on inter- 


denominational, non-denominational, or denomina- 
tional lines. Leadership Training Schools exist in 
single local Church Schools, sometimes taking the form 
of a regular class at the Sunday session and sometimes 
meeting during the week. Sometimes these classes have 
a session only once a week and sometimes they meet 
every day in the week except Saturday, until a unit or 
other section of the course is completed. Arrangements 
have also been made by the denominational General 
Educational Board whereby a single individual in the 
isolated church may pursue a correspondence course 
under the direction of the general office in Leadership 
Training. The colleges, universities, and seminaries 
offer courses in their regular curricula for Leadership 
Training, and also put on intensive short term, special 
courses for such training. Then there are specialized 
groups for training leaders to do special things, as for 
example, groups for the training of masters for Scouts 
and guardians for Campfires. 

In addition, provision is made in a growing num- 
ber of churches for expert supervision of the actual 
classroom work by Directors of Religious Education. 
One of the most promising methods of improving the 
ability of those who are already engaged in teaching is 
to supervise their work, lay out courses of reading and 
study for them and strive through personal conferences 
to correct their teaching faults. Nor must we neglect 
the Workers' Council of the local Church School, 
especially when this Council becomes a Committee of 
the Whole for the consideration of the problems of 
the Church School and of plans to solve them. This 
Workers' Council ought always to do this, at least for 
a part of each session. 


We have been so long accustomed in this country 
to voluntary workers in Religious Education that the 


response to a proposal to give them a salary is a decided 
conviction that to pay them for this work would be 
to lessen their efficiency. There is no doubt that there 
will always be need for voluntary, part time, unpaid 
workers in this field, but it is equally patent that there 
is need at this time for others who have prepared them- 
selves thoroughly for the work of Religious Education 
in local Church Schools and are ready to give full time 
to this work as a life calling. One of their chief duties 
will be to train the voluntary workers of the Church 
School and fit and qualify them to render a maximum 
of service. An integrated program will require this 
very thing to be done and there is no reason why those 
who do it should not receive a salary. There was a 
time when the church thought it belittled the ministry 
to pay the man of God a salary. It was all right to 
give him something without letting on that your right 
hand knew what your left hand did, but to enter into 
a contract to pay a certain price for certain well under- 
stood services — that was to disgrace the noble calling 
of the ministry. That heresy has long since, for the 
most part, been exploded, and, while it may take us a 
hundred years to dispose of the heresy that workers in 
Religious Education ought not to be paid salaries, we 
may be sure that eventually it will be done. 

Every church that employs a Director of Religious 
Education and gives him coordinate rank with the pas- 
tor, as the educational minister of the congregation, has 
already taken a long first step toward destroying this 
false notion. For most churches all that will be neces- 
sary in the way of paid leadership in the work of Reli- 
gious Education for the present, at least, will be this 
official. But the time will come when the church will 
also find it necessary to employ paid assistants to the 
Director of Religious Education, who will serve divis- 
ional superintendents and in some cases departmental 
superintendents. The growth of the Week Day School 
Movement and of the Daily Vacation Bible School 


Movement is paving the way rapidly for the employ- 
ment on salary of a limited number of expert full time 
teachers in religion for individual classes. 

When the standard of excellency in any Church 
School makes work in Religious Education a vocation 
rather than an avocation, then the question of salaries 
for workers and leaders will have disposed of itself. 
The erection of standards of excellency is important, 
therefore, in settling this issue. The acceptance of 
these standards will determine the policy of the local 
Church School with reference to paying its workers in 
Religious Education. 


The colleges of the church have been accused of pay- 
ing more attention to the preparation of public school 
teachers than of a trained leadership for the work of 
the church. The facts in the case have justified this 
accusation, but there are hopeful signs that the colleges 
are determined to remove from themselves the stigma 
of this shortcoming. It would be difficult now to find 
a denominational college that does not offer instruc- 
tion in the Bible and also in Religious Education. The 
Standard Teacher Training Course as approved and 
adopted by the International Council of Religious 
Education is now being offered in a growing list of 
denominational colleges for credit toward any degree, 
and students who pass these courses are being certified 
by the colleges to their denominational Boards of 
Religious Education and to the International Council 
for diplomas. This course should be given preferably 
in the Freshman Year in the Bible and Religious Educa- 
tion Departments. 

The Council of Church Boards of Education in 
1921 recommended the following to the denomina- 
tional colleges of the country: 


L That colleges upon religious founda- 
tions pursue the policy of offering sufficient 
work in the Bible, the Christian religion, and 
various subjects related to Religious Educa- 
tion to prepare their students for intelligent 
support and leadership of Religious Education 
in their home churches and communities. 

II. That the total amount of work con- 
templated as a minimum be one-fourth of a 
four years' college course, or, in the usuaj 
terminology of the colleges, thirty semester 

III. That a certificate in Religious Educa- 
tion be granted to students who upon grad- 
uation have completed the work herein de- 

IV. That the subjects and the approxi- 
mate number of hours allotted to each sub- 
ject be: 

1. Bible, 6 semester hours. 

2. Teaching Values of Bible Material, 3 
semester hours. 

3. Curriculum, 2 semester hours. 

4. The Christian Religion, 3 semester 

5. Educational Psychology, 3 semester 

6. Introduction to the Study of Religious 
Education, 3 semester hours. 

7. Teaching the Christian Religion (with 
observation and practice) , 4 semester hours. 

8. Organization and Administration, 3 
semester hours. 

9. History of Religious Education in 
America, 3 semester hours. 

The seminaries, too, are offering courses not only 
along the departmental lines characteristic of them, but 
also in Religious Education. There is a growing feel- 
ing on the part of the seminaries that the training which 
their graduates formerly received in a measure dis- 


qualified them for the work of the pastorate, and 
particularly for the educational work of the pastorate. 
Dr. J. W. Nixon, pastor of the Brick Presbyterian 
Church, Rochester, N. Y., and for many years pro- 
fessor in the Rochester Theological Seminary, has some 
very incisive criticisms to make along this line, in 
connection with the contrasts which he draws between 
the content courses of the seminary and the activities 
of the ministerial life. Dr. Nixon, writing in Christian 
Work, January 2, 1926, says: 

The divorce between content courses which 
are essential to graduation and activities 
which are the side issues of theological edu- 
cation, stamps activities as educationally in- 
ferior. A corresponding stigma is thereby 
attached to the normal duties of the pastor- 
ate. This separation between theological 
education and the concrete tasks of the pas- 
torate has at least two very serious effects. 
In the first place, the activities of the pas- 
torate have never been broken up and ana- 
lyzed from the educational point of view, so 
that pastors do not know how to attack the 
problems which they face by scientific meth- 
ods. In the second place, since the average 
pastor is shut off from content courses in the 
seminary, he tends to think of his education 
as completed with his graduation. If the ac- 
tivities of the pastorate had been properly in- 
tegrated in a theological program, then ana- 
lyzed and studied, the concepts "education" 
and "pastoral activities" might have been 
mutually assimilated. 

The student, accordingly, from the very 
beginning might discern in his activities the 
means of educational growth and the pas- 
tor might feel that his educational develop- 
ment had not been finished but had just be- 
gun, with his graduation from the seminary. 
The amount of arrested development, edu- 


cationally speaking, in the pastorate, is ap- 
palling. I am more and more persuaded that 
its primary cause is found in the arrested de- 
velopment of the theological seminaries from 
which these pastors have graduated. Many 
of these seminaries have become liberal in 
their theological conclusions, but in their 
methods they still reveal their orthodox and 
dogmatic past. The principles of their cur- 
riculums are the residual effects of theological 
beliefs which have been outworn. These 
liberal seminaries maintain in theory that re- 
ligion is a living process, that the revelation 
of God is as universal as the experience of 
life, but the corollary to this theological lib- 
eralism, that education is a growing process 
in the midst of life, is still rank heresy. 

Universities, too, other than the state universities, 
are providing for high specialization in the field of 
Religious Education, and in these latter years the list 
of Doctors of Philosophy contains a growing number 
who have taken their degrees in this field. 

Even in the state institutions which are not allowed 
to offer courses in religion, various experiments are in 
process by which instruction in the Bible and Religious 
Education is offered to their student bodies by the 
churches individually or cooperatively for the training 
of Christian young men and women for Christian serv- 
ice in the churches. The universities are friendly, for 
the most part, to these experiments, and where the 
standards employed in the teaching and conduct of the 
work are worthy, university credit is granted for these 


The colleges, seminaries, and universities of the 
church, however, must do more than offer instruction 


in the Bible and Religious Education. They must pro- 
vide laboratory facilities whereby the knowledge 
acquired and the methods presented in the classroom 
may be tested in actual experience. The denomina- 
tional institutions of higher learning have not hesitated 
to appeal for funds with which to erect libraries, science 
halls, practice schools, and other buildings necessary 
to the conduct of their work of general education. 
They should with all the greater confidence appeal to 
the same sources for funds with which to erect and 
endow laboratories of Religious Education. 

The laboratory building of the department of 
Religious Education, architecturally speaking, should 
embody the best in the way of facilities for the work 
of the Closely Graded Church School. If such a build- 
ing is erected for a Closely Graded Church School 
operating on the departmental basis, it will readily lend 
itself to the conduct of classes using either the Closely 
Graded Lessons or the Group Graded Lessons. It will 
contain, of course, assembly rooms for worship for 
the use of each department and special classrooms with 
the very latest and most approved equipment and fur- 
niture. Such a laboratory, too, should begin with the 
kindergarten and include all the departments of the 
modern Church School. It should serve the same pur- 
poses exactly as the practice school of the Department 
of Education in the normal colleges. That is to say, 
week day religious instruction should be given in the 
Religious Education laboratory and, if the community 
desires, the same department could be made responsible 
for the Sunday session of the Church School. How- 
ever, it is very likely that such a laboratory will confine 
its work to week day religious instruction for the pupils 
of the community, and the teaching will all be done 
by the students in the Department of Religious Educa- 

Such a laboratory of Religious Education in connec- 
tion with a Christian institution of higher learning 


should be a model of a completely integrated Church 
School in every particular. It should provide facilities 
for instruction, worship, and expression. The pro- 
gram should be integrated from the different stand- 
points of organizations concerned, curriculum, expres- 
sional activities, local demands and financial budget. It 
should embody in organization, outlook, and conduct 
the principles of an integrated program of Religious 

In particular, there should be facilities for Manual 
Training and Manual Arts. Provision should also be 
made for Scout work and Campfires and Christian 
Endeavor, for Missions, for recreation, for amusement, 
and for the social life. Such a laboratory should also 
train its pupils in substantial giving for definite causes 
and enterprises. It should in every way possible regard 
itself, in brief, as a week day religious school of the 
denomination with which the college is connected. 
However, it must be admitted that where several 
denominations are present in the community, it will 
have to be regarded as a week day religious school of 
the pure community type. 

The professional courses of instruction in a college 
equipped with such a laboratory will include the stand- 
ard Leadership Training course adopted by the Inter- 
national Council, to which we have referred. It will 
offer instruction also in Scouting, Campfire, and all the 
other features of an integrated program. In this way, 
such a laboratory will be the means of providing a 
competent and experienced leadership for Religious 
Education throughout the denomination. Herein will 
justification be found for the denominational college in 
this day, and its characteristic field of service. 

Of course, the ministerial students, too, who are 
in attendance at such a college will avail themselves of 
the opportunities for Leadership Training offered by 
such a laboratory. In this way, the churches that are 
unable to have Directors of Religious Education will 


have pastors who are capable of caring adequately for 
the educational program. 


At Elon College, North Carolina, will be found such 
a laboratory of Religious Education. This building 
was donated to the college by Mr. M. Orban, Jr., of 
Whittier, California, in memory of his father-in-law, 
the Reverend Isaac Mooney. The Mooney Christian 
Education Building is designed to train young people 
for Christian leadership. It is also the rally center of 
the social and religious life of the entire college. Elon 
is a small college which limits its enrollment to four 
hundred, so that this building is big enough to house 
the social and religious activities of the students of a 
voluntary character as well as to supply the facilities 
for a laboratory of Religious Education for those who 
study in the Department of Religious Education. Only 
those are allowed to do laboratory work in Religious 
Education who have had at least one year of profes- 
sional preparation in this department. The course for 
the first year in this department is the Standard Leader- 
ship Training Course, integrated with Freshman Bible, 
valued at six semester hours credit. After the first year, 
upon the recommendation of the director and the 
individual teachers, students who are still pursuing 
courses in the department are eligible to do laboratory 
work under the supervision of the department pro- 
fessors, of whom there are four. They are charged a 
laboratory fee for this work, just as students in 
chemistry or physics. 

The director of this laboratory is Professor Simon 
A. Bennett. Writing in Christian Education, Novem- 
ber, 1925, Professor Bennett gave the following 
description of this building: 

Inasmuch as this is the first building of its 
kind on any college campus in America, an 


explanation of the building, itself, and the 
actual uses to which it is devoted may be of 
interest. It is a laboratory of Religious Edu- 
cation, but it is more than this. It is also 
the center of the voluntary social and re- 
ligious life of the campus as well. How these 
ideals work out will appear as the building 
and its uses are described. 

The first floor is in two units and is de- 
signed to provide facilities for the social and 
religious activities of the college young people. 
The south end of this floor is given to the 
work of the young women. Here is provided 
a commodious and neatly furnished assembly 
room for the Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation. There is a stage with curtains, 
piano, and speaker's stand. On one side 
there is a dressing room with toilet facilities 
and on the other a well-arranged kitchen 
with running water, sink, and electric range. 
At the front of the building are four parlors 
for the use of the social clubs organized 
among the young women. This convenient 
equipment provides in an admirable way for 
the social and religious life of the young 

At the north end of the first floor there is 
exactly the same arrangement of rooms for 
the use of young men. Here the Young 
Men's Christian Association meets, and the 
social life and the religious life of the young 
men are brought together in a fine way. The 
entrance to the men's part of the building is 
at the north, the entrance for the women at 
the south, with no connecting openings be- 
tween the units, thus giving to each the ex- 
clusive use of the unit. 

The second and third floors are reached 
by an entrance at the center of the west side. 
The second floor has a chapel that will seat 
400, with a furnished stage, dressing room, 


and organ room. Adjoining the chapel there 
are two attractive offices for the pastor and 
the director of the Week-day Religious 
School. There are also on this floor four 
light, well-arranged recitation rooms for the 
use of the college professors who teach in the 
School of Christian Education. 1 Here the 
classes in the department of the School of 
Christian Education meet daily and the 
chapel is used for the daily chapel service for 
the Elon student body and faculty. 

On Sunday these college classrooms and 
chapel provide accommodations for the adult 
department of the citizens' section of the 
Church School. The chapel is also used for 
the Endeavor Society on Sunday evening and 
for special lectures and entertainments given 
for the students. 

The third floor provides space and equip- 
ment for a thoroughly departmentalized 
Church School. There is a special room for 
the babies of the Cradle Roll. Adjoining this 
is the Beginners' or Kindergarten Department 
thoroughly furnished. There are also the 
Primary, Junior, Intermediate, and Senior 
Departments, each with its assembly room 
for worship and individual classrooms. Each 
of these departments is furnished with a 
piano, superintendent's desk, cabinet, coat 
room, and needed furnishings. There is also 
a secretary's supply room, where material is 
stored for use in the varied work of these 
departments. On Sunday the children under 
eighteen years of age meet on this floor for 
Sunday School. Through the week these 
rooms are used for the respective depart- 
ments of the Week-day Religious School. 
The children of the Elon public schools and 
of the Christian Orphanage come for this 
work in Religious Education, according to a 
1 The School of Christian Education includes all courses in 
Bible and in Religious Education. 


schedule agreed upon with the superintend- 
ents of the schools and of the orphanage. 
This provides laboratory work for the col- 
lege department of Christian Education. 

Here every week fifty of our college stu- 
dents are at work as officers and teachers going 
about the practical work of Religious Edu- 
cation under the supervision of the Director 
of the Week-day Religious School. 

There are two rooms in the basement of 
the building that are designed for manual 
training and practical arts and handicraft 
among the boys and girls of the Week-day 
Religious School. There is also an automatic 
electric elevator for use of the mothers and 
smaller children. This gives us a building 
designed to meet the needs of the School of 
Christian Education in a modern small col- 
lege plant. Here the college work of the de- 
partment, with its practical laboratory work 
in Religious Education, and the social and 
religious activities of the student body, are 
all brought together and correlated with the 
regular Church School work. 

It should be said in this connection, however, that 
the town named Elon College is a typical college com- 
munity, that there is no church organization in the 
community except that which meets in the college chapel 
and is pastored by the college pastor, and that con- 
sequently all the children in the community, without 
exception, attend the Week Day School of Religion 
conducted in the laboratory in the- Department of 
Religious Education. There would perhaps be no 
objection on the part of the community should this 
department elect to conduct the Sunday session of the 
Church School, but so far the department has refrained 
from this. However, this course of instruction is 
integrated completely with the Sunday School and also 
with the Daily Vacation Bible School held during the 


summer. There is a cooperative committee which 
handles this matter of integration. It should also be 
added that on each Saturday night motion pictures of 
a character-building nature are given in the chapel of 
the Mooney Christian Education Building. There is 
no charge for these pictures, but a free will offering is 
received. The Scout and Campfire work of the com- 
munity is integrated with the Week Day School of 
Religion, and in addition the pupils in the Department 
of Religious Education also conduct a Week Day 
Religious School for the colored population, using the 
public school building of the colored race for this pur- 


The International Training Course issued by the 
Committee on Education of the International Council 
of Religious Education contains twelve units, eight 
required general units and four specialized units. The 
course is flexible and provides also for graduate elective 
units and for substitute units. The Committee on 
Education under the leadership of its director, Dr. H. 
Shelton Smith, is approaching the problems of Leader- 
ship Training in a statesman-like way. Its present 
course of study is prepared from the distinctive view- 
point of the Sunday School, but eventually it will issue 
a completely integrated course. The tendency in this 
direction is also evident in the sub-Committee headed 
by Dean Bower, which is preparing an Integrated Cur- 
riculum designed to provide a unified course of instruc- 
tion for Sunday, Week Day, and Vacation Bible School 
sessions. This is a hopeful sign. It is prophetic of 
the day when a truly integrated program of Religious 
Education will be provided for local Church Schools, 
and then of necessity a corresponding preparation in 
training for leaders will be provided by the Interna- 
tional Council and conducted in the various agencies of 


preparation at work in the field. 1 In addition to the 
Standard Course the International Council is taking 
steps to prepare for a High School Course of nine units 
and of a Graduate Course to furnish professional and 
semi-professional training for part-time and full-time 
workers. The High School Course is below the Stand- 
ard and the Graduate Course above it. The Graduate 
Course is to contain at least eight units of twenty-four 
hours each, or one hundred and ninety-two hours. 


Slattery: You Can Learn to Teach. 

Betts and Hawthorne: Method in Teaching Religion. Ch. X. 
Richardson and Loomis: The Boy Scout Movement Applied 

by the Church. 
The Book of the Camp Fire Girls. 
Athearn: The City Institute for Religious Teachers. 
Harper: Reconstructing The Church. Chs. IV, V, VI. 
Leaflets of the Committee on Education of the International 

Council of Religious Education. 
The various Teacher Training Courses and Units. 

1 Those interested in the approved texts of the courses for 
Leadership Training should apply to the International Council 
of Religious Education, 5 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chapter X 


We are come now to the consideration of the cap- 
stone of the arch of Religious Education. It would be 
equally true to say that it is the bulwark of Christian 
character. There is only one factor in all the experience 
of life that can answer to these specifications, and that 
is the Christian home. As go our homes, so will go 
the church and the nation and every institution, enter- 
prise, and interest of our whole life. The home can 
never safely make the church the stepmother of its 

Civilization has witnessed the transfer of one interest 
and prerogative after another of the home to other 
organizations, units, or institutions of the social order. 
Originally religion, government, education, industry, 
recreation, and every conceivable interest of the human 
life were brooded and cared for in the home, i. e., were 
well integrated with it. These interests, one by one, 
were afterward turned over in whole or in part to other 
institutions. While the prerogatives of the modern 
home stand shorn of their former exclusiveness, never- 
theless it still retains the power that will make or break 
all these offshoots by the backing or lack of backing 
which they receive from it. 

We are beginning now, in our thinking, to reinstate 
the home in its old place of primacy as the basic human 
institution, and thoughtful men and women are ready 
to agree that no organization has a right to oust the 
home from full participation in its affairs. Parental 



responsibility cannot be surrendered with safety to the 
child, nor (with safety) to the social order. On the 
other hand, other institutions and organizations that 
would serve our human life to the best advantage should 
undertake to form closer and more intimate alliances 
with the home in the launching of their plans and the 
conduct of their work. 

The church has contributed no less than other 
institutions and organizations to this shearing of the 
home of its dominance and has proceeded as if by 
reason of the divine interests it represents, it were the 
basic institution of our life. It has even proclaimed it 
to be the duty of the home first of all to give proof 
beyond criticism of its adherence to the claims, calls 
for service, and behests of the church. But leaders of 
the church are now beginning to say that this attitude 
is a huge mistake, that even the church can make 
demands on the home that will undermine it as the 
character-building institution it was divinely ordained 
to be in the beginning and, therefore, ought to be in 
practice. For example, church leaders are willing to 
concede now that some families may be serving the 
interests of the Kingdom more effectively by keeping 
the entire household home together Sunday evenings 
than by attending the evening preaching service of the 
church. Or that it may be more beneficial to the family 
and to the church, likewise, for some households to 
absent themselves from the mid-week prayer meeting 
where a pleasant evening together at home is about the 
only way that certain members inclined to be wild can 
be kept off the streets. 

As a general principle, it should be said that the home 
is sovereign among institutions entitled to a place in a 
Christian social order, and that the power rests with it 
of deciding just how far it should cooperate in the plans 
and programs of all the other organizations that essay 
to minister to the life of man. 



For a generation now we have been accustomed to a 
Home Department as one of the divisions in the Church 
School. The machinery of this department is very 
simple. Its main purpose is to pledge those who, for 
one reason or another cannot attend the Sunday School, 
to study the lesson used by the Bible Classes at some 
time during the week for adults and to make a contribu- 
tion regularly to the support of the school. The Home 
Department Visitor feels that his full duty has been 
discharged when the homes on his list have been visited 
and these two items checked up. This visitation was 
designed to pave the way to a heart to heart conference 
on its specific spiritual problems at each home visited, 
but this feature of the program has remained entirely 
in the realm of the ideal. 


In contra-distinction to the Home Department, what 
we need is a Department of the Home. By a Depart- 
ment of the Home we mean a department charged with 
the integration of the whole life of the Church School 
with the home, based on well-thought-out plans of 
cooperation between them and of assistance for the 
home in the solution of its problems. It must be 
frankly admitted that this will probably turn out to 
be no simple matter and that experience will greatly 
modify the methods of approach to this problem first 
tried and perhaps also the conceptions that underlie 
them. Experience will certainly clarify these concep- 
tions, if it does not actually modify them. Extensive 
research and experimentation will be found imperative 
at this point. 

One of the first attitudes that workers in the Church 
School must consent to take is that home duties are 
Christian duties, and that they have the highest spiritual 


value, and that they also have educational value in the 
nurture of Christian character. Our predecessors have 
been all too prone to regard service performed in the 
church and for the church and for others outside the 
home, if done in the name of Jesus, as alone belonging 
to the category of Christian duties. But we know- 
better and are ready to admit that every experience in 
our living makes its contribution, either positive or 
negative, to our character. The only way by which 
we shall ever Christianize the human heart is through 
teaching it by precept and example to put as much 
spiritual value as possible into every deed or service 
which it may perform. 

What finer opportunity to achieve this happy ideal 
is offered any teacher of religion than that which the 
mother has offered her in her home? The little child 
finds it easy to realize the presence of God in every 
experience. The simplest home duty should be set 
before the budding life in terms of Christian service. 
But in order to round out this home teaching, Church 
School leaders and teachers must also gear their instruc- 
tion in with these home duties and accept them as 
Christian service, adding to them, of course, other duties 
relating to the church, the Church School, and the out- 
side world. 

There are certain home problems which can only be 
solved to the best advantage, except in the rarest 
instances, with the assistance of the Church School. 
There is the problem of leisure, in which adequate 
provision is involved for the needs of the social life, of 
amusement, and of recreation. There is also the prob- 
lem of money, and the training necessary in systematic 
giving. There is the further problem of worship and 
instruction, and wise methods of dealing with such 
questions as the family altar, the story hour, and the 
home reading. The radio in these latter days has 
introduced another problem for the home. The 
Church School has an open door of service here in aid- 


ing the home to give Christian motives the upper hand 
in these decisions but it must never obtrude itself in 
rendering this service. Its attitude should always be 
one of cooperation and assistance, and never one of 

The Department of the Home must not treat all 
homes alike but adjust itself to the problems of each 
particular home it serves. We have used the hit-or-miss 
method too long, with disastrous results in the rearing 
of children. Those who visit in the homes of the 
members of the Church School should win the con- 
fidence and learn the particular needs of each home. 
Free and sympathetic discussion should follow between 
the Church School visitor and the parents in regard to 
all these problems. 

We have learned that the character of the child is so 
definitely set by the time it enters the Beginners' Depart- 
ment of the Church School at the age of four, that it 
is with great difficulty that the young life let run wild 
until then is remotivated in Christian terms. The 
visitor of the Department of the Home, therefore, needs 
in such a home to engage in long and instructive talks 
concerning the religious nurture of the pre-school child 
and also the physical rearing and care of children. 
Other homes will have in them boys and girls of 
Primary, Junior, or Intermediate age. The topics of 
conversation and the points brought out by the Church 
School visitor will be those suited to the particular 
situation. Parents will appreciate such assistance on 
the part of the Church School and will be inclined 
themselves to become active attendants on its public 
services. Of course, it is understood that for those 
parents who enter the Church School the curriculum 
should be flexible enough to permit them to be grouped 
together to discuss the problems of parents. In this 
connection it should be mentioned that one of the most 
satisfactory courses of study which any school can give 
in its Young People's Department is a course dealing 


with the problems and ideals involved in the founding 
of a Christian home. 

It is freely admitted here that the introduction of 
such courses of study as an essential part of the cur- 
riculum of Religious Education will be regarded as a 
revolutionary step in many places. These opponents 
of innovations will consider them unworthy of such 
recognition. They should in our judgment be based in 
every case on the Scriptures. They should be taught 
as expositions of the Biblical ideals of life. Presented 
in this way, such courses will be no more out of place 
in a Church School than a sermon in a Christian pulpit. 

The day is not far distant when what may be called 
the preparatory course in Religious Education will be 
complete with the seventeenth year, and the students 
are ready to be promoted from the Senior to the Young 
People's Department. Then work will begin for them 
on elective courses, in what may be very properly called 
the Church School College. This work will continue 
until the pupils have reached the age for admission into 
the Adult Division. Then they will very properly 
begin to take what we should perhaps describe as the 
Graduate Church School Courses. These latter courses 
will be so capable of indefinite multiplication, that at 
no time in life can any member of the church right- 
fully claim that he has completed his Religious Educa- 
tion. There will always remain many courses of study 
which he may profitably pursue in what we may, for 
want of a better term, designate as the Church School 


The Cradle Roll, of course, should be integrated 
with the Department of the Home. It does not belong 
to the Children's Division. The visitors who serve 
the Department of the Home in its effort to aid the 
home in its Christian life will also be the Cradle Roll 


visitors. There is no need to have one set of persons 
visit the home as the representatives of the Adult 
Division and another set represent the Cradle Roll. 
These two types of work should be performed by the 
same persons nor should there be separate Cradle Rolls 
for Missions and for the Church School. Those who 
are enrolled as members of the Church School in the 
Department of the Home are enrolled for all the educa- 
tional work of the church in the integrated program of 
Religious Education. It is doubtful, too, if the prac- 
tice by these visitors of receiving offerings from these 
members of the Department of the Home should be 
allowed, except as they contribute through the regular 
budget and as they are approached along with others 
for special offerings for special purposes. 


There should be in every Church School a Mothers' 
Room and this room should be fitted up with beds, 
playthings, and proper facilities for the care of the 
babies under four years of age. Whenever there is a 
meeting in the Church School, whether on Sunday or 
during the week, mothers with babies of tender years 
who are invited to attend should take their little ones 
to this Mothers' Room, where attendants or their own 
nurses will be present to care for them, to teach them 
things appropriate to their age, to play with them, and 
otherwise entertain and care for them while the mothers 
are in the meetings. During the regular preaching serv- 
ice this room also should be open to the babies, so 
that the mothers may enjoy the services of worship on 
the Sabbath and the other public exercises of the 


There is need in every integrated Church School of 
a Parent-Teachers' Association, not meeting at stated 


times necessarily, but upon the call of the Director of 
Religious Education acting in cooperation with the 
officers of this Association. At these meetings the wel- 
fare of the Church School and of the home, and the 
peculiar problems of the community life, should be fully 
discussed and methods devised and undertaken to solve 
them in accordance with the principles and ideals of 
the Kingdom. It goes without saying that the public 
school as an integral part of the community life should 
have thorough consideration in these discussions, and, 
where it is at all practicable, the similar parent-teacher 
organization for the public school system should meet 
with the Parent-Teachers' Association of the Church 
School, at any rate, these two organizations should 
cooperate through committees. In this way the whole 
educational life of the whole community can be 
integrated and unified in its approach to the problems 
that confront it for solution. Herein is set forth a 
problem requiring thorough research and investigation. 


We hear a great deal in these latter days of vocational 
guidance. The original and determining influence in 
the field of vocational guidance must always remain the 
home. Parents and other members of the home can 
smooth the way for the young life committed to the 
home into the ministry, into the all-time Christian ser- 
vice of the Kingdom, or into any other investment of 
itself of which they approve. The Church School, 
therefore, should lay it heavily upon the hearts and 
consciences of parents to accept their privilege and 
obligation in this matter, and Christian homes should 
be encouraged to magnify the call to Christian service 
which God lays upon all. The atmosphere of the 
home and its teaching should be such that unless it can 
convince itself that God wills it to invest its powers 
in other directions, no young life will be content to 


engage in any other service than Christian service. And 
even for those who shall elect vocations other than all- 
time service for the Kingdom, the home should make 
sure that such lives shall be lived in accordance with 
the spirit, principles, and program of the Kingdom. 


Baldwin and Stecher: The Psychology of the Preschool 

Child. Chs. I, II, IX. 
Gesell: The Pre-school Child. Chs. I-IH, X. 
Cleveland: Training the Toddler. 
Rhodes: Religion in the Kindergarten. Chs. IV, V. 
Cope: Religious Education in the Family. 
Weigle: The Training of Children in the Christian Family. 
Weigle and Tweedy: Training the Devotional Life. 
Darsie: The Christian Family. 
The Family Lutheran. 

Norton: Parent Training in the Church School. 

Cope: The Parent and The Child. Doran. Ch. I and passim. 

Baker: Parenthood and Child Nurture. 



Abingdon Press, The, 139. 

Administering the Budget, 117. 

Adult Division, 67. 

Aged Ministers, Homes for, 113. 

Agencies of Religious Education, List of, 14 ff. 

American Baptist Publication Society, The, 139. 

Amusements, 91. 

Association, Parent-Teachers', 144 fF. 
Athearn, Walter S., 22. 
Athletics, 91 


Bennett, Simon A., 132 ff. 

Board of Publishing, 7 ff. 

Books and an Integrated Program, 5 ff. 

Bovard, Wm. S., 30 ff. 

Bower, W. C, 63 ff. 

Boy Scouts, 38 ff., 79. 

Budget, The Denominational, 112; An Integrated, 81, 110. 

The Local Church, 115 ff. 
Budget Commission, 114ff. 
Budget Committee, The, 111, 116. 120. 


Campfire Girls, 38 ff., 79. 
Christian Church, The, 102, 30, 32. 
Christian Education Defined, 42—3. 

Christian Endeavor, 20 ff., 37 ff., 66 ff., 70 ff., and Integration, 
77 ff. 

Christian Service, The Call to, 145. 
Christian Work, 127 ff. 

Church, The, 85 ff.; Budget of, 115 ff.; and Integration, the Local 

Situation, 23 ff.; and the Home, 139 ff. 
Church Honor Day, 1 1 1 ff., 1 1 7 ff. 

Church School, The 44 ff., 110 ff., 124 ff., 144 ff., 145 ff.; 
Budget of, 118 ff.; Committee on Education of, 90 ff.; 



Church School, The (continued), Integration Applied to, 48 ff.; 

Organization Chart for, 54 ff. ; Promotion in, 61. 
Church School College, The, 143. 
Church Year, The, 28 ff., 82, 79 ff., 119, 92. 
Clark, Francis E., 77. 
Closely Graded Lessons, 65 ff. 

Colleges, Integration in, 56 ff.; and Leadership Training, 57; and 

the Religious Education Curriculum, 72. 
Committee on Education, 90. 
Community, The, 84 ff. 
Congregational Church, The, 30. 
Cooperation in Religious Education, 27 ff. 
Correlation in Religious Education, 28 ff. 
Council of Church Boards of Education, 39 ff., 126 ff. 
Covert, Wm. C, 31 ff. 
Cradle Roll, The, 143 ff. 

Curriculum, The, 103 ff.; An Integrated, 63 ff., 65; General Edu- 
cational Board's Relation to, 65 ff.; Theories of, 63 ff. 


Daily Vacation Bible Schools, 38 ff. 

Denominational Agencies of Religious Education, List of, 1 5 ff. 
Denominational Boards, Their Need of Integration, 33 ff. 
Department of the Home, 82, 139 ff., 140 ff., 143 ff. 
Disciples of Christ, The, 30. 

Director of Religious Education, 35 ff., 49 ff., 65, 90, 92 ff., 

124 ff., 125 ff., 144 ff. 
Duplication of Effort, 20 ff. 


Elective Courses, 67 ff. 
Eton College, 132 ff. 
Evangelism, 83 ff. 
Evanston Conference, The, 37 ff. 
Every-Member Canvass, 111 ff, 117. 
Expenses, of present system, 21 ff. 
Experimentation, 1 6 ff. 
Expression, 16 ff., 26. 

Expressional, The Term, Justified, 75, 106. 


Federal Council of Churches, The, 17ff., 39. 

Financial Board, The, 116, 120. 

Forest Hills Conference, Its Findings, 1 8 ff. 




Garden City Conference, 18. 

General Convention, Denominational, 44, 113 ff., 115. 

General Educational Board, The, 33 ff., 37, 46, 101 ff., 105 ff., 
108 ff., 113 ff., 117 ff., 123 ff.; Integration Applied to, 
44 ff.; Organization and Membership of, 46 ff. 

General Secretary of General Educational Board, 46 ff. 

Girl Reserves, 5 1 ff. 

Girl Scouts, 38, 79 ff. 

Giving, 80 ff., 81 ff. 

Graded Social Service, 83. 

Graduate Church School Courses, 143. 

Group Graded Lessons, 65 ff. 


Hartsborne, Hugh, 63. 

Herald of Gospel Liberty, The, 108. 

Hi-Y, 51, 54. 

Home, The, 139 ff., 82; the Basis of Civilization, 138; and 
Church, 139 ff. ; and Christian Service, 145 ff. ; Integrated, 
138 ff. 

Home Department, 140 ff. 


Indiana Survey, 22 ff. 

Inefficiency, a Weakness of our Present Situation, 22ff. 
Instruction, 16 ff, 26 ff. 

Integration, 30 ff.; Applied to General Educational Board, 44 ff. ; 
Applied to Local Church School, 48 ff.; Illustrated by the 
Intermediate Department, 5 1 ff. ; Applied to the Colleges, 
54 ff.; Organization Chart of, 55; Applied to Denominations 
and the Community, 92 ff.; and Christian Union, 108 ff.; 
and Interdenominational Agencies, 37 ff.; and Non-denomina- 
tional Agencies, 37 ff. ; Theory Underlying, 26 ff. 

Institute of Social and Religious Research, 22. 

Inter- Church World Movement, 23. 

Interdenominational Agencies of Religious Education, List of, 
14 ff.; Their Integration, 37 ff. 

Intermediate Department, Integration in, 51 ff. 

International Council of Religious Education, 136 ff., 14, 17ff., 
21 ff., 38 ff., 63, 126. 

International Journal of Religious Education, 1 04 ff . 

International Lesson Committee, 17 ff. ; Sub-committee on Inte- 
grated Curriculum, 64 ff., 65. 

International Sunday School Association, 1 7 ff. 




Jazz, 107. 

Journals of Religious Education, Need for, 104 ff. 
Judson Press, The, 139 ff. 


Kelly, Robert L., 32. 
Kerr, Alva M., 108. 


Laboratories of Religious Education, 129 ff., 132 ff. 
Laboratory of Christian Education, A, 132 ff. 
Large Gifts, 120 ff. 

Leadership Training, 103, 68; An Integrated Program of, 122 ff.; 
Methods of, 123 ff.; in College, 122, 126 ff.; Standard 
Course, 136 ff.; High School Course, 136 ff.; Graduate 
Courses, 136 ff. 


Manual Arts, 79 ff. 
Manual Training, 79 ff. 
May, Mark A., 63. 
Methodist Book Concern, The, 139 ff. 
Methodist Episcopal Church, The, 30. 
Ministerial Students, 131 ff. 
Missionary Education, 17. 
Missionary Education Movement, 39. 
Missionary Societies, 66 ff. 
Mooney, Isaac, 132. 

Mooney Christian Education Building, 132. 
Mothers' Room in Church School, 144. 


Newspapers, Denominational, 108. 
Nixon, J. W., 127 ff. 

Non-denominational Agencies of Religious Education, list of, 15; 
Their Integration, 3 7 ff . 


Orban, M., Jr., 132. 
Organizations, Their Rise, 1 3 ff. 
Orphanages, 113. 

Over- organization, 16; Its Expensiveness, 21 ff. 



Pamphlet Literature, 103 ff. 
Parent-Teachers' Association, 144 ff. 
Parish House, The, 89 ff. 
Paying Leaders in Religious Education, 1 24 ff. 
Playground and Recreation Association, 87 ff. 
Presbyterian Church, The, 30. 

Public School, The, 135 ff., 139, 144 ff.; and Religious Edu- 
cation, 71 ff. 
Publishing, Integrated Program of, 139 ff. 


Reading Courses, 105 ff., 69 ff. 
Recreation, 91. 

Regional Convention Denominational, 114ff. 
Religion, Teachable, 104 ff. 

Religious Activities Organization for Colleges, 56 ff. 

Religious Education, Denned, 1 04 ff. ; Agencies of, Interdenomina- 
tional, 14 ff.; Non-denominational, 15; Denominational, 15; 
Distinguished from Christian Education, 42 ff. 

Religious Education Association, 21 ff. 

Research, 16. 

Research Problems, 22, 105 ff. 
Roster, A Community, 90 ff. 
Russell Sage Foundation, 22. 


Sermon, The, and Integration, v. ff. 
Smith, Elias, 108. 
Smith, H. Shelton, 136. 
Social Life, 91. 
Song Books, 107. 

Standard Teacher Training Course, 126. 

State Institutions, and Religious Education, 129 ff. 

Sunday School Council, The, 17. 


Teacher, his functions, vii. 
Theological Seminaries, 127 ff. 
Tract Literature, 102 ff. 
Traveling Libraries, 106 ff. 




Uniform Lessons, 65 S. 

Universal Conference on Life and Work, 76. 

Universities, and Religious Education, 129. 


Week-day Religious School, 44. 
Workers' Council, 124. 
Worship, 73 ff.. 118 ff. 


Y. M. C. A., 39. 
Y. W. C. A., 39. 

Young People's Department, Calendar of Activities for, 93 ff. 


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